When do we use the preposition ‘up’ in combination with a verb, as in ‘heat up’ and move up’?

Most novice Pinoys don’t realize these usages

They can read of these being used but they don’t use these

These usages of UP are: INTO A STATE OF EXCITEMENT as a meaning and INTENSIFIER as a function according to the New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language.

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into a state of excitement — as a meaning of ‘up’

Umiinit ang laro.

The game starts to heat up.

 

Kinikilos ang diwa ko ng kinakanta ng banda.

The song rendered by the band moves my spirit up.

intensifier — function of ‘up’

Magsalita ka.

Speak up.

 

Magsabi ka sa akin ng problema mo.

Open up to me about your problem.

 

Masterin/pakadalubhasain mo ang paggamit at pagtugtog ng gitara.

Master up using and playing the guitar.

Most Pinoys don’t realize this: that the preposition ‘in’ sometimes means ‘as a result of’

There are cases when they hesitate to translate

And ‘in’ is the solution

According to the New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, IN means AS A RESULT OF.

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Highly suggested translations and not highly suggested ones–

Dahil sa  pagpapanik,  tumakbo siya sa bangin at nahulog.

In panic, he ran toward the cliff and fell off.

— Formal, highly suggested translation

 

Because of panicking, he ran toward the cliff and fell off.

— Local form by the uninitiated; agreeable but may sound unnatural depending on the circumstance in which it might be said or written.; not highly suggested translation but may be tolerated

 

On account of panicking, he ran toward the cliff and fell off.

— Grammatically correct but too formal and inappropriate for the setting, and a bit waste of ink and saliva; not highly suggested translation but may be tolerated

What is ‘naka’ and ‘napa’ in English, as in ‘nakaunawa’ and ‘napasali’?

You will use ‘come’

Not the ‘come’ that means ‘pumarito’

But the COME whose dictionary usage means TO OCCUR TO MIND and TO RESULT.

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nakaunawa

Samantalang si Issy ay nakaunawa sa prinsipyo nang siya ay bata pa, si Toffy ay hindi nagpahalaga nito sa kaniyang buhay hanggang kolehiyo.

 

While Issy came to an understanding of the principle as a child, Toffy did not value it in his life until college.

nakarinig

Nakarinig ako ng balita na tataasan ang pamasahe sa/ng sasakyan.

 

I came to hear a news that vehicle fare is to be raised.

naanod

Naanod ang sasakyang-dagat.

 

The sea-vesseI came adrift.

napasali

Napasali ako sa Pinoy Galing Competition.

 

I came to be joined in Pinoy Galing Competition.

What is ‘na ma-‘ in English? For example ‘walang panganib na matumba’.

You will use ‘of it’

plus ‘ing’

See sample specimens-translations below.

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na matumba

Suportahan mo ng matatag ang motorsiklo para walang panganib na matumba ito.

 

Securely support the motorcycle so there is no danger of it falling over.

 

Alternative but cloying (nakakaumay): Securely support the motorcycle so there is no danger that it will fall over.

na makuha/kunin

Iniiwasan namin ang sitwasyon na makuha/kunin ito sa amin.

 

We are avoiding the situation of it being taken from us.

Novice Pinoys translate ‘Sino ang nag-drop?’ into ‘Who dropped?’ and it’s awkward. What’s the right one?

It’s not ‘who dropped’

But ‘who did the dropping’

Because using ‘who dropped’, we are not sure if the doer dropped someone, or it is him who is dropped by somenone.

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ang pumutol ng kahoy

May pumutol ng kahoy. ———- Sino ang pumutol?

 

Unclear: Someone had cut the tree. —–—– Who cut?

 

Clear: Someone had cut the tree. ———- Who did the cutting?

ang nag-drop

May nag-drop sa iyo sa klase. ———- Sino ang nag-drop?

 

Unclear: Someone has dropped you from the class. ———- Who dropped?

 

Clear: Someone has dropped you from the class. ———- Who did the dropping?

You’ll have a hard time translating these Tagalog/Filipino specimens without using English word ‘one’!

Yes! ‘One’ is the word

But we’re not talking about numbers

Applying contextual translation, see the result below.

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Mauutangan ka ba?

 

 

 

Correct: Can one borrow from you?

 

 

Hmmm: Can you be borrowed?

 

 

Okay but offbeat: Can you be borrowed from?

Kailangang magsikap para magtagumpay.

Correct: One should strive to achieve success.

Novice trndency but a no-no: Should strive to achieve success.

Can be considered alternatively: A person should strive to achieve success.

Paano ba matututunan ang paraan ng pagluto ng pabo?

Correct: How does one learn the procedure for cooking a turkey?

Novice tendency but a no-no: How can be learned the procedure for cooking a turkey?

Para makapasa sa pagsubok, dapat maging matiyaga.

 

Correct: To pass a trial, one should be patient.

Novice tendency but a no-no: To pass a trial, should be patient.

Makakarating ng Manila kapag mag-south road.

 

Correct: One can reach Manila by taking the south road.