Nasa bandang pinakaibaba ang mga tips sa pag-translate!


Mary Grace encourages you to have your daily dash of these tips. And say goodbye to nose-bleeding over time, she asserts!

Welcome to Say It Right in English!

Ano sa English ang “iniregalo ito ni Mama sa Tita ko”?

Sirit ka?

Paano ba iyang “iniregalo”?

Ang English n’yan ay, “Mama made a gift of it to may Aunt.”

Ang English ng “sumasayaw” ay “dancing”, pero, paano naman ang “pasayaw-sayaw”?

Sirit ka ulit!

Gagamit ka lang ng phrasal combination kung saan ay ipi-preface mo ang “go”.

Kaya ganito ‘yan: Halimbawa, “Pasayaw-sayaw lang ako. — “I just go dancing.”

Now, here we go again; try this one out, “Pang-ilan si Jinggy sa magkakapatid?”

OUR PROBLEM REALLY IS HOW TO TRANSLATE PHRASAL WORDS OR COMBINATION OF FILIPINO SPECIMENS THAT ARE HARD TO CONVERT INTO ENGLISH ESPECIALLY IF THEY ARE IN THE NON-BASE FORM. WE SHALL CALL THIS ISSUE, COLLOCATION. Ilan is how many; sa is among; magkakapatid is siblings. They are in base form or base structure. So now, what about pang-ilan? Hayan, there goes our problem, that of converting the non-base form. In other words, it is the issue about COLLOCATION. So find out about Collocation. Just what about it?







The focal interest of this blogging forum (later to be a new book, ‘How do you say it in English?, Nosebleeders’ Edition’) is to equate language to language translation patterns that are not treated in dictionaries and grammar books as well as not discussed in schools, such as those of these formats: naka-, nakapa-, makapa, nagka-, ipa-, napasa-, mapapa and similar other formats; as in nakatapilok, nakapatili, makapatulong, nagkaapoy, ipanalo, napasaakin, mapapadesisyon etc.


This book is not better than its first edition. Not even the first edition better than this. They are complementary to each other. This edition is simply a continuation of the former. It is assumed or advised that the user as well as the mentor, guide, tutor, coach, or teacher of this book in series to his/her student should have the basic familiarity of the prototype or first edition “How do you say it in English?” (2010 Edition, Enhanced) being published by National Book Store.














Get to Know First the Prototype First Edition

How do you say it in English? (2010 Edition, Enhanced)

Currently published by National Book Store (Philippines). A NEPP-RELEVANT BOOK PROMOTION. The NEPP (National English Proficiency Program) was established in response to the directive of President Gloria Arroyo to improve the English language proficiency of teachers in English, Mathematics,and Science in the Department of Education. In the author’s effort to help lighten the country’s problem of lack of mastery of the English language and to contribute to the government’s National English Proficiency Program — We have produced a unique and practical reading material, which we believe would significantly contribute boost the confidence level of those in the academe using the English language. This reference material is first in Bicol and in the country. Originally prepared to help a friend, soon later, it helped a school; and now in a book and have been at bookstores to help the reading public. We are inspired to assert that our book is being published on public encouragement and demand! It is a wordbook of Filipino to English guide translations with discussions and instructions. Learners may use it in day-to-day practical conversation and writing—just when they have the idea right in their head, but can’t quite express the idea in straight English. The book is entitled “How do you say it in English?”

Media Exposure

Featured in Marhay na Aga Kapamilya (Magandang Umaga Kapamilya) over ABS-CBN BICOL on March12, 2009.

University Use

Used by Bicol University Language Center (BULC) in Legazpi City, with the center’s hundred copies order on February 18, 2009.

Handsome Sale

Turned out fetching sales in malls and book stores in Bicol (Philippines) on its maiden releases.


Dictionary-based vocabulary learning is not enough.


More stories

Mind you, but then, it is a reality that there may be many guys out there including or just like me back then who may be good grammarians and rich in dictionary-based vocabulary, yet still do nosebleed a lot of time. Mind you again, but then, mastery or expertise in grammar and dictionary-based vocabulary are just some bunch of things, whereas speaking straightly in the precise translation form is another or different point! Cross my heart, you cannot be an excellent grammarian and vocabulist who automatically is a straight and English who speak the language from childhood or have it as our day to day medium of conversation. In other words, we do not grow up or do not live in an environment where English is the common, typical or native medium of communication. Then what has this condition something to do with our problem of deficiency in straightly speaking English despite our being infinitely taught with the grammar and vocabulary? Well, these two methods—1) the grammar learning and 2) the dictionary-based vocabulary enriching—which are our only two methods of English learning, cannot fully solve our problem. Because I declare: That still, there is no other best way of learning language than to be in the actual environment where that language is natively or innately spoken. But since we are not native English speakers, I suggest an alternative that unfortunately is missing in our system. Before I tell what this alternative is, let me reiterate that the two already existing methods are not sufficient. For the reason that the grammar learning in school is confined merely to the study of the base form. Base form method means concentrated only on the root. Then again, dictionary-based mastering of vocabulary is likewise base form. I will not explain much what I mean here by base form. You are please instead advised to read How do you say it in English? (2010 Edition, Enhanced) for the discussion on base form. I will rather illustrate some sample of the base form learning — Filipino Specimen: Inilagay niya ang mga kard sa mesa ng maski papaano lang. English Translation: ? Our problem above is how to translate ng maski papaano lang in English which is quite hard. The grammar, for its part, cannot, of course, hint us the translation for ng maski papaano lang by treating the phrase in whole or as a unit particularly its grammatical components in relation to its equivalent in English. Now, if one’s grammar proficiency could not solve our translating dilemma, could the dictionary-based mastery yet solve the problem? We have seen that it’s absolutely no! So mangangapa tayo and our tendency of translation would be: “He placed the cards on the table by even how only.” Kakatawa ano! E kasi naman wala tayong kinagisnan na references o sources of pattern na itinuturo o inirerekomenda sa school mula pa umapak ang mga paa natin sa eskwelahan! The above would be the ridiculous tendency of translation if we obey the dictionary-based method UNLESS WE NOW START LOOKING FOR SOME MORE REFERENCE FOR TRANSLATION PATTERNS aside from grammar checking and dictionary checking. Now, let me tell, that here is the THIRD METHOD THAT HAD BEEN MISSING IN OUR SYSTEM—the method applied and treated in this book of mine. Correct translation for the preceding question: He placed the cards on the table every which way. I believe it’s high time more such samples of correct translation should be constantly provided to help the nosebleeders. I will do the honor thru this book series. Back to the topic on the birth of this book series: Finding a solution to overcome my translating deficiency back then, just as those of most Filipinos, I explored the juxtaposition and paradigm (see the appropriate page in this site) of translations. Coming up with a coherent paradigm of proper translation or translating, I wrote my first sample manuscripts on an old used notebooks. I then decided to make homemade prints and as a test market distributed some 50 copies for free to my friends—students, professionals, brilliant students, not so brilliant ones, young, old, and of different other sorts. Almost all of them reacted positively, even wanting to buy copies. Encouraged by their feedback, I put up not so big a fund to have the first machine printouts of 500 copies in 2007. I sold the copies via some bookstores and malls in Bicol. With D’Third Editorials Co., a publishing partnership I organized with three partners, the book was put into legal circulation, earning the very warm welcome of the reading public. The initial commercially produced copies had been sold out, so reprints were necessary to supply the patronizing public. Then on February 19, 2009, the book was adapted for reference use by Bicol University Language Center in Legazpi city with the university’s hundred copies order. What’s more, on March 12, 2009, the book was featured over ABS-CBN (Bicol) on its morning show “Marhay na Aga Kapamilya” (Magandang Umaga Kapamilya). These accomplishments prompted me to prepare a business proposal with the country’s biggest book retailer (National Book Store) that readily accepted the book and is currently publishing since 2010 the revised first edition, “How do you say it in English? (2010 Edition, Enhanced)”. Where the book and its series currently see print up to this day, it’s all owing to the painstakingly studied trial market of a business attempt of book selling that was, though worrying, yet turned out achievable. In fact the test market was the hardest part than writing the book itself. Because when you publish a book, you will have to tune up to the nuances and modes of the readers, incorporating their complexion to the style of your writing. So you will consider revising every so often. Thanks to my marketing assistants who supplied me with enlightening insights realized from their actual encounters in their previous book selling stints even before we got to know each other. The test market was exciting indeed, as my marketing assistants and I were selling copies in the sidestreets. The encouraging thing was that most people to whom we offered the book for sale reacted positively. They were right away convinced that we really are in vital need of patterns for translation and that this book is the answer and thus very timely. As far as those few we encountered to refuse and criticize us negatively at first, our proposal was: “Okay sir/maam, if you are not convinced now, here, please allow us to just leave the copy with you for three days. Go over it. When we come back and you are not convinced, then return to us the book without a due.” Interestingly, as soon as we went back to get the book, the customer would not give the copy back but paid for it instead.

What is “How do you say it in English?”?

It’s a much-needed paradigm or pattern.


More stories

Why is the problem so? The reason as revealed in this book is that we don’t have the paradigm, which, luckily as far as I humbly declare, this book now provides at long last along with the recommended solution. As solution in general, there are three ways to apply so that one will be able to speak English straightly. The first two is already and typically applied or have been in permanently in our academic system. They are as follows: 1) the grammar study as well as mastery, and 2) dictionary mastery or vocabulary enrichment. The problem is that our academic system focuses only on these two. So that despite the fact that we are the third largest English speaker in the world, still most of us end up nosebleeding. The missing link to the method is this suggested by this book which should be the third method—the translation paradigm. In order to come up with the nearest or appropriate translation or the paradigm for such, I used the process of juxtaposition of the hardest to translate Filipino specimens with their nearest English translations. Literally, juxtaposition is a physical placing of things side by side. Theoritically in this book however, I involved the process of studying, analysing, determining, and finding the logical resemblances in meaning of the two languages in question by the contexts in which they are spoken or used in some given settings in order to arrive at their nearest or appropriate vice versa translations. Logic and context are the two important elements used in this attempt or study of translation paradigm. To understand why and how logic and context are involved in the process, see the explanations and illustrations on page 233, Final Points (in the book as soon as it gets published; but see the appropriate page herein). “How Do You Say it in English Series” is not a dictionary though technically anyway, this book looks like a dictionary. Because the typical dictionaries chiefly concern on the treatment of meanings of base-form core words, unlike this book that treats the extensive considerations. See the prototype (first of the series) “How do you say it in English?” (2010 Edition, Enhanced) for the comprehensive explanations. Also, it is not a rule book because there is no rule in translating. It is not even a grammar book; though incidentally some grammar matters are treated here. Rather, it is a “paradigm.” Paradigm means an example serving as a pattern (New lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, 1990); a model or pattern for something that may be copied; a theory or a group of ideas about how something should be done, made, or thought about; example, pattern, especially an outstandingly clear or typical example or archetype (emphasis supplied by this author). And late Latin paradigma, from Greek paradeigma, from paradeiknynai (to show side by side), from para- + deiknynai (to show) … (Merriam-Webster, Encyclopaedia Britannica Company). Why is this book a paradigm? For the simple reason that since we cannot make a rule in translation, so then the best option is to make the paradigm (the archetype or prime example pattern of how something should be done, made or thought about especially or outstandingly clear). Because if nobody will initiate just as this author have been doing, we will simply end up constantly inventing our Atypical Translation. Atypical means uncharacteristic, nonconforming, different, unusual, not customary, not standard, uncommon, strange, out of the usual run, and odd. Thus, without the standard paradigm but instead merely loose freedom to apply atypical mode of translating, more trouble will be entailed that will lead one to the loss of confidence in speaking, more so, doubt in oneself when he/she is compelled by situation to be engaged to speak or write. Since juxtaposition is the placing side by side, it is but logical to use this process to arrive at the paradigm, since anyway, paradigm (Greek paradeigma—showing side by side) is the ultimate showing or presentation—the ultimate model.

Why this nosebleeders’ edition?

Isip ka ng isip kung ano ba talaga ang factors kaya ka nagno-nosebleed.








At saka, ganito ka mag-nosebleed

Not only you do nosebleed in translating or speaking English; you likewise do nosebleed in thinking out why and how. The clarifications to all these blunders of yours are already expounded in the relevant pages in this blog forum. Let’s admit it out to one another—one’s being an excellent student, valedictorian, cum laude, and academic awardee at that, does not guarantee one’s necessarily being fluent in English. Not even one’s being grammar proficient; because grammar is simply the study of the systematic rules of a language or the system of forms and syntactical usages characteristic of any language. Hence, take note, grammar is not the study of the equivalence of two languages in relation to each other. Please take note of my emphasis: Grammar learning is unlike the Paradigm treated by this book which concerns on the logical equating of two languages or evaluating them in relation to each other. Not even the fact of having a bulk of memorized vocabulary from the dictionary can guarantee for one to be fluent in English; because dictionary vocabulary learning concerns primarily on the singular base form treatment of each word, not on the collocational form of words in relation to translation. On the contrary, what concerns the proper translating is the collective treatment of words as they are used in contextual application. You can master translation only by context along with logic. This is the idea of the process of juxtaposition. Context pertains to the conditions or circumstances which affect something. Hence, translating by context is, contrary to direct or word to word translating, that which take into consideration the background or setting in which words are treated. Please see page 233, Final Points (in the book when it gets published but may be reviewed in appropriate page herein) on explanations on translating by context with logic. Let me have this one more emphasis: Translation should be context-sensitive; meaning, in a translating behavior that depends on a given setting or situation; hindi ‘yung direkta kaagad-agad! Hence, we truly need some PARADIGM FOR TRANSLATING as well as a wide-ranging work (but not extremely wide) about it where samples are given with discussions or treatments. Such is the idea that this book serves and sets as a learning norm. This book itself is the paradigm. This paradigm is the THIRD METHOD that I would like to incorporate in our study of the English language. The two—the grammar learning and the dictionary-based vocabulary enriching—had long been in place in our academe. Let’s add my method then. It’s simple and basic anyway. Matrabaho nga lang sa case ko kasi ako ang research ng research at juxtapose ng juxtapose! All the three methods should go hand in hand to complete our learning process. But then wait … I believe that a single edition of such book as this one is not sufficient. Instead, samples should be provided continuously on in such a way that, with the user/learner’s constant updating or getting updated with samples thru the series of editions, it would go as if he gets himself adapted to the English language as if it were his/her day-to-day tongue. That way, our problem—the problem posed in the preceding pages—that we are not used to the language from childhood and that it is not our day-to-day medium, being the reason why we are not straight English speakers since we are not steeped to it, will then be finally addressed or solved. But then, since you could hardly look for somebody else around you who could be native English speaker or master translator in order for you to interact with, so as to constantly get yourself used to as well as steep in the language, then have instead yourself this book series. Kailangan, may tulad nito na makasanayan ng Pinoy.



We can find in the dictionary the English meaning of maganda, that is, beautiful; but what about that of nagagandahan? Of hirap, that is, difficulty; and what about magpakahirap? Edad — age; what about kaedad? For these words being asked, dictionaries do not offer equivalents. Page XI

It is typical when we hear someone being asked during a learning period, “How do you say problema in English?” Our way of studying English translation as with the italicized example is basic, that is, concentrated on core-word or base-form. And this is quite easy. Isn’t it improved if we would also have it this way, “How do you say nagkaproblema in English?” We can finally learn to speak straight English by translation patterns in phrasal form, not simply core- or base-word. Nagkaproblemaran into a problem (phrasal expression). Page 159

With does not only denote “togetherness”; rather, it is the counterpart for na ang. He ran with the lion chasing — Tumakbo siya na ang leon ay humahabol. Page 51

Sometimes your tendency is to look for one-word English equivalent for your Filipino verb. Yet, most of the time, finding one may be difficult. Magsikap … would it be effortize? No. That’s awkward and funny. So forget the one-word way; rather, make your own verb frames by prefacing or combining your available noun with make, take, get, place, hold, give, etc. Magsikapmake an effort. Page 148






Mary Grace


Please select the category ‘How do you say it in English?’ for your direct access to the blogs corresponding to this topic!







We will outline here few specimens at a time (get yourselves updated every now and then). Important Disclaimer: The usages are taken from The New Lexicon Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language. The developer of this site does not intend to plagiarize those explanations of the usages in the said Dictionary; instead, it is deemed that quoting them verbatim herein is necessary for editorial purposes, for reference basis, or for building confidence in the use of the English language with such usages in relation to their Filipino applications. Those sample sentences in asterisks are taken verbatim from the same dictionary. Those not in asterisk are the author’s applications based on the usages.

VERBS — (If the spaces for samples are still in blank, please just hang on as you update yourselves. We will fill out the spaces later.)


Isang kapurihan ang unang sumaksi/makasaksi sa isang dakilang pagtatagumpay.

It’s a pride to bear first witness to a noble conquest.

To give, offer


Kaya iniutos ng Panginoon na ang bawat isa ay magbunga ng mabubuting gawa.

Thus commands the Lord that everyone should bear fruit of good works.

To give birth to; to produce


Ang biro ay hindi pang-paulit-ulit.

The joke does not bear repetition.

To be suitable for



Nakakahiyang pumasok at magambala/gambalain ang inyong katahimikan.

It’s embarrassing to go in and break your silence.

To interrupt the continuity of


Bakit sinawata/pinigil ng ibang unyon ang welga?

Why did the other union break the strike?

To suppress, bring to an end


Hayaan ninyo akong ipahayag itong mahalagang abiso: ang A-club ay hindi sisipot.

Let me break this important notice: The A-club will not show up.

To announce (startling or bad news)


Bumagsak ang kalusugan niya sa presyon.

His health broke under the strain.

To disintegrate under pressure


Kapag ang tagtuyot ay matapos sa wakas, bibili tayo ng isang trak ng mga binhi.

If the drought finally breaks, we will purchase a truckload of seedlings.

To come to an end



Hindi ko mapatanong ang sarili ko./Hindi ko magawa ang sarili ko na magtanong.

I can’t bring myself to ask.

Subukan mong mapatanggap siya.

Try to bring him to accept.

— To persuade


Nagpangiti ito sa kaniyang mukha.

It brought a smile to her face.

— To cause to come

See page 158, First Edition


Bakit hindi mo na lang i-600 iyan para marami ang bumili.

Why don’t you rather bring that to 600 so many would purchase.

Ibenta mo ito sa halagang 100 para hindi ka lugi.

Bring it to 100 so you will not be losing.

— To fetch (a price)

Paniniwalaan mo kaya ang bawat internet blogs?/Maniniwala ka kaya sa bawat internet blogs?

Would you care to believe in every internet blogs?

Isukat mo kaya ito, gayong nalaman mo na ngayon na isinuot ito noon ng taong may malubha at nakakahawang sakit sa balat?

Would you care to try it on, as you have learned now that it was once worn by somebody with serious and contagious skin disease?

— To be willing, have the wish



Naobserbahan ko siyang sumusulyap sa iyo.

I observed him casting a glance on you.

— To direct, usually quickly


Ang paliwanag niya ang nagbigay/nagdulot/naghatid liwanag sa problema.

It was his explanation that cast light on the problem.

Natutunugan ko na pinagsususpetsahan mo ako./Natutunugan ko na pinagbubuntunan/pinagtutuunan mo ako ng suspetsa.

I can sense that you are casting suspicion on me.

— (figuratively) To cause to be directed on or against


Ow salamat! Nahabol/natiyempuhan ko ang tren!

Thank goodness! I caught the train.

— To be in time for


Nahagip ng bato ang pisngi niya.

The stone caught him on the face.

— To hit or strike


Nag-apoy bigla ang kahon.

The box suddenly caught fire.

— To burst into


Subukan mong makaugnayan/makadaupang-palad siya ng kahit isang minuto bago ang pagtitipon.

Try to catch him for even a minute before the meeting.

— To make brief contact with


Kumuha ka ng bahagyang sulyap.

Catch a slight glimpse.

— To obtain briefly


Ang sigasig ng samahan ninyo ay nakakahawang tunay sa iba.

The enthusiasm of your organization indeed catches others.

— To be infected with


Ang pagdapo ng/pagkahawa sa sipon ay posibleng-posible kapag nasa umpukan ka.

Catching cold is highly likely when you are in the crowd.

— To contract an illness


Nakuha/Nasundan/Narinig ba ninyo ang pangalan niya?

Did you catch his name?

Naririnig (nasusundan) ba ninyo ang pagdidikta ko?

Can you catch my dictation?

— To hear


Nahahalina mo ang mata ng mga kalalakihan dahil sa iyong katikasan.

You are catching the men’s eyes with your stylishness.

— To attract (attention) or the attention of


Sumabit ang kapote niya sa kawad.

Her coat caught on the wire.

Nagkasabit-sabit siya sa palumpong sa pagtakas niya.

He got caught in the bush as he fled.

— To become entangled


Humagulhol siya matapos malaman ang balita na ang sikat na diva na si Sheerna Estrada ay seryosong naaksidente.

She broke having learned of the news that the famous diva Sheerna Estrada met a serious accident.

— (of the voice) To break with emotion


Papagkamalying-tao mo si Kerdel! Nangangapos ang kaniyang hininga.

Go resuscitate Kerdel! He is catching his breath.

Sumisinghap ang mga mananakbo sa katatapos pa lang na karera.

The runners are catching breath from the just concluded race.

— (of breath) To stop momentarily as a result of surprise etc.

Ang pangangaral minsan ng Panginoong Jesucristo ay sa pamamagitan ng talinghaga./Ang pangangaral minsan ng Panginoong Jesucristo ay sa talinghaga.

The Lord Jesus Christ’s preaching sometimes comes in parable.

— To exist [Wiktionary]


Naanod ang Bangka.

The boat came adrift.

— To become

Sa hulihan ang paliwanag.

The explanation comes at the end.

— To occur


Hanggang ilong ko ang tubig.

The water comes up to my nose.

— To reach


Kasunod ng Lunes ang Martes.

Tuesday comes after Monday.

— To occur in sequence


Naisip niya ang sagot sa may bathtub.

The answer came to him in the bathtub.

— To occur to the mind


Napasa-bunsong anak na lalaki ang mana.

The title came to the younger son.

— To fall as inheritance


Siya ay halo ang dugo.

He comes of mixed blood.

— To issue, be born


Alam mo kung ano ang makukuha/mapapala sa pag-inom ng labis.

You know what comes of drinking too much.

— To result


May sagot na ako sa palaisipan na binigay mo./Naisip ko na ang sagot sa palaisipan na binigay mo./Masasagot ko na ang palaisipan na binigay mo.

I came on an answer to the puzzle you gave.

— (with ‘on’) To arrive at (a solution)



Ang kapoteng ito ay nasa/makukuha sa lahat ng sukat.

This coat comes in all sizes.

To be available


Huwag kang mag-inu-inosentehan.

Dont’ come the innocent.

verb transitive (British) to pretend to be

Kaya pala. Nakakahanga talaga ang mahusay.

I see. He who is superb really commands admiration.

Nakakarespeto ang taong nagpapakita ng magandang halimbawa.

The person who sets good example commands respect.

— To deserve or be able to get or receive (something) [Merriam-Webster Dictionary]

Ang nanay ko ay nananahi bilang hanapbuhay.

My mother does dressmaking for a living.

Nagpu-potograpiya ako.

I do photography.

I am photographying.

Nag-i-interview: Ano ba ang hobby mo?

Ini-interview: Nagpi-painting ako.

Interviewer: What do you do for a hobby?

Interviewee: I do painting.

— To work at, have as occupation


Ganito ang pag-ayos ng buhok.

Doing the hair should be this way.

— To deal with in required fashion


Nakaka-25 milya ito sa galon.

It does 25 miles to the gallon.

Nakaka-50 kilometro ng takbo sa 1 litro ng gasolina itong motorsiklo ko.

This motorbike of mine does 50 kilometer of run to 1 liter of gasoline.

— To have a mechanical performance


Mali ang proseso. Dapat lutuin sa hurno/hurnohan.

The process is wrong: it has to be done in the oven.

— To cook


Ano kaya kung mabibigyan mo ng pabor ang tatay ko sa pagpadala nitong editoryal.

I wonder if you can do my father a favor by sending this editorial.

— To render


Angkop/Akma/Puwede sa atin ang sasakyan na ito sa ganitong panahon.

This vehicle will do us in this weather condition.

— To serve, suit


Sino ang gaganap na/ng Olphelia?

Who is doing Olphelia?

— To play the part of


Itinatanghal ng grupo ang “Macbeth”.

The group is doing “Macbeth”.

— To present (a play)


Ibig sabihin nito ay may pribilehiyo ka na libutin ang Asia Mall ng libre.

This means you have the privilege to do the Asia Mall free.

— To make a tour of


Inutakan/Niloko siya ng kaniyang kapatid sa kaniyang mana.

[His brother] did him out of his inheritance. [example sentence from Merriam-Webster Dictionary)

(popular) To swindle

— To treat unfairly, especially, cheat (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)


Kapag inistima ninyo ang mga bisita ninyo, magtatamo kayo ng isang gantimpala; na iyan ay libreng advertisement ng “word of mouth”.

If you do your guests well, you will obtain an award; that is, free advertisement by “word of mouth”.

— (British, popular) To entertain


Ginulo/Sinira mo na ito.

Now you’ve done it. [=spoiled things]

— (popular) To upset, ruin


Isalin mo ang Horace sa Ingles na berso.

Do Horace into English verse.

— To translate


Ano na si Eireen?/Ano na ang lagay ni Eireen?/Kumusta na si Eireen?

How is Eireen doing?

Maayos si Eireen./Maayos na si Eireen./Okey si Eireen./Maganda ang lagay ni Eireen.

Eireen is doing nicely.

— To progress


Naman! Ang ulam na ito ay talagang puwede na/okey na sa aming lahat kahit pa sampu kami.

Of course! This viand will definitely do for all of us though we are ten.

— To be suitable; to suffice


Ang iba ay hindi napapansin ito tulad mo na hindi rin napapansin ito.

The others don’t see it as you do.

— Used as a substitute verb to avoid repetition

Nagpadismaya sa buong bansa nang ang Rangers 60 ay namatay/pinatay sa barilan sa Bundok Agalat.

It brought dismay nationally when the Rangers 60 fell in the Mt. Agalat gunfire.

— To be killed


Nabihag ang kuta na walang ipinuputok.

The fort fell without a shot being fired.

— To be captured


The night fell [on them].

A silence fell on them.

— To seem to descend


The two sample sentences above are peculiar native English formats. Peculiar means tangi or natatangi. See further illustrations about peculiar idioms in the first edition. Every state has its peculiar language collocations that do not advisably call for direct translation or even near or nearest translation. What is important is only decent translation. Decent means good enough but may not be the best.


Hence, there is no need to look for near or nearest translation for the above sentences like for example ang gabi ay bumagsak sa kanila and bumagsak/bumaba ang katahimikan sa kanila. There is no need because such English sentence formats are peculiar or para lang o natatangi lang sa mga native English speakers. Maybe the advisable thing is to render the sentences these ways: dumating ang gabi sa kanila and natahimik sila/nagkaroon ng katahimikan sa kanila. But then if we want to apply it figuratively, well puwede na rin siguro iyang bumagsak ang gabi sa kanila and bumaba/bumagsak ang katihimikan sa kanila.


Napasa-kapatid niya ang pagtrabaho.

It fell to his brother to do the job.

— To happen by way of obligation


Nakakaduda kung ang mana ay mapapasa-pamangkin.

It’s doubtful if the inheritance will fall to the nephew.

— To pass by right


Ano’ng oras sa tingin mo ako ay makakatulog.

What time do you think I’m going to fall asleep?

— To pass into some state


Ang tungkulin niya ay pang-Martes.

His duty falls on Tuesdays.

Ang kaarawan ni kuya ay Lunes/sa Lunes.

Kuya’s birthday falls on a Monday.

— To occur


Ang talakayan ay nahahati sa tatlong yugto ayon sa iyo. Pakipaliwanag po.

The discourse falls into three stages according to you. Please elucidate.

— To divide analytically


Ano bang lagay ninyo ng bagong boardmate mo?

How are you faring with your new boardmate?

— verb intransitive To manage, get along


Maganda ang tinatakbo ng pag-aaral ni Jongdy sa Estados Unidos./Okey ang pag-aaral ni Jongdy sa Estados Unidos./Maayos ang pag-aaral ni Jongdy sa Estados Unidos.

Jondy is faring well in his studies in the United States.

— verb intransitive (with ‘well’ or ‘ill’) To experience luck of the kind indicated

Napangitan sila sa guhit nang masidlakan ito ng liwanag.

They found the drawing ugly when it was sparked on/struck by light.

— To discover by trial or experience


Para sa akin ito ay pagsubok./Sa tingin ko ito ay pagsubok./Pagsubok ang tingin ko dito.

I found it a trial.

— To discover by the feelings


Hindi ka madadalian na ito ay pakahuluganan.

You won’t find it easy to define.

To discover by the intellect

Ang pahayag ay naisaimprinta.

The statement found its way into print.

Ang ginawa niya ay na-media.

What he did found its way into media.

Ang ginawa niya ay napaulat sa media.

What he did found its way into a media report.

— To make (a way) somehow


Kapag matanggap ang mungkahi mo saka ka magmalaki.

If your suggestion finds acceptance, that’s when you may brag.

— To obtain


Nagkaroon/Nakakuha/Nakabuo ako ng puhunan para sa isang bahay.

I found the capital for a house.

— To succeed in getting or raising


Hindi ako makaipon ng tapang na magpatuloy/para magpatuloy.

I can’t find courage to continue.

— To summon up


Mukhang naisahan ako.

I find myself outwitted.

— To perceive (oneself) as specified


Ipinahahayag ng korte na ang akusado ay may pananagutang danyos sa pag-aari.

The court finds the accused liable for damage to property.

— To declare (a verdict); to declare (a person) as specified (guilty, insane etc.)


Nagkaloob ng tulong ang employer sa mga nagbabalik na empleyado matapos ang huli ay magsagawa ng pagpipiket.

The employer finds accommodation for the returning employees after the latter made a picket.

— To provide


Ang mungkahing taasan ng 500 na peso ang buwanang SSS pension ng mga senior citizens ay tanggap sa sektor ng mga mahihirap.

The proposal to increase by 500 pesos the monthly SSS pension of the senior citizens finds acceptance among the sector of the less fortunate.

Ang hula tungkol sa tinig ng sumisigaw sa ilang ay natupad sa katauhan ni Juan Bautista.

The prophecy about the voice crying in the wilderness found fulfilment in the person of John the Baptist.

Ang mungkahing taasan ng 500 na peso ang buwanang SSS pension ng mga senior citizens ay natanggap sa sektor ng mga mahihirap.

The proposal to increase by 500 pesos the monthly SSS pension of the senior citizens found acceptance among the sector of the less fortunate.

— To obtain


Matapos pabayaan ang sitwasyon, heto nagawa kong maghanap ng paraan na makalabas sa problemang ito.

Having forsaken the situation, I find myself seeking for a way out of this trouble.

— To find oneself—to discover one’s potentialities and begin to realize them


Mag-uniform na kayo dahil ang laro ay malapit nang ipanawagan ilang minuto pa.

Find yourselves in uniform now since the game is about to be announced in a few minutes.

— To furnish oneself

Ipagpauna mo ang Diyos sa lahat ng bagay.

Give God first place in all things.

— To bestow; to devote


Um-start ka! Come on! (as if angrily speaking to a motorized vehicle that is stubborn to start)

Give a start!

— To make involuntarily


Sumigaw ka na maririnig ka ng 2000 kadaming mga nakikinig.

Give a shout so as to be heard by the 2000 strong audience.

— To utter


Para makatulog, turukan mo ang oso nitong somnolent injection.

Give the bear this somnolent injection for it to fall asleep.

Ang insulin shot na ito kapag idinulot/itinurok sa pasyente ay mangangailangan ng boosting chemical.

This insulin shot if given to the patient will require a boosting chemical.

Dulutan/Painumin mo siya ng tranquilizer.

Give him a tranquilizer.

— To administer


Tiyak ilalagak ko sa bangko ang pera. Ipinapangako ko sa iyo iyan.

I will definitely put the money in bank. I give you my word for it.

— To pledge


Talo ka na sa katuwiran, pero hindi ka pa rin sumusuko’t tumatanggap ng iyong pagkatalo! (Also sumusuko and kumikilala for Go—concede/admit.

Already you are defeated in argument, and yet you would not give with your defeat!

— To concede, admit


Pinagiisipan ko ito ng mabuti./Pinag-uukulan ko ito ng mabuting/matamang pagiisip.

I’m giving it a thorough thought.

— To devote


Patawagin mo ako sa pulis, dali.

Give me the police, quick.

— To put a caller in communication by telephone with


Maaari mo ba akong itayo/buhatin? Hirap akong makatayo.

Can you please give me a lift? I can hardly stand up.

Paangkasin mo ako. Will you please?

Give me a hitch. Maaari po ba?

Kapag pinasakay mo ako, tatanawin kong malaking utang na loob.

If you give me a ride now, I will take it as a debt of gratitude.

Pinoy tendency: If you will allow me to ride now, I will take it as a debt of gratitude. This translation is grammatically correct but wrong for and not the exact counterpart of its Filipino specimen above because that specimen does not in any way denote a sense that the speaker is requesting a permission. But because of the unawareness of most Pinoys about using the extra usage of give as given in this topic, the common tendency that most of us would observe is for the Pinoys to render the English sentence that way where there is that phrase allow me to. What makes me sure that such is the tendency? Okay here, let us assume that you are the novice Pinoy translator and you do not ordinarily know the extra usage of give as treated above. Now, in your head, try to translate Pag pinasakay mo ako… Go………………………………………………

See! Nothing comes into your head except allow me to ride! Well, ang sentence na Kapag pinasakay mo ako ay hindi naman sa lahat ng oras nangangahulugan na humihingi ng permission ang nagsasalita!

— To do someone (a free service)


Pahirapan ang paghatid nitong abiso sa dahilang kakaunti ang mapagkukuhanan ng teknolohiyang pang-impormason sa islang bayan na ito.

Giving this notice is a struggle with a meagre resource of information technology in this island town.

— To deliver (a message)


Bumigay ang yelo sa ilalim ng sarili niyang bigat.

The ice gave under her own weight.

— To yield to pressure


Ang bintana ay padungaw sa isang hardin.

The window gives on to a garden.

— To open or look out

Dama niya/Parang aktwal na nangyari sa kaniya ang bawat segundo ng pelikula.

He lived every second of the film.

— To enjoy or experience vicariously


Isakatuparan/Isabuhay natin ang ating paniniwala at relihiyon.

Let us live our belief and religion.

— To carry out in one’s life the principles of

Wala dito si Mardo. Siguro inutusan siya./Wala dito si Mardo. Siguro umalis siya na may utos./Wala dito si Mardo. Siguro may pinagawa sa kaniya./Wala dito si Mardo. Siguro umalis siya dahil sa utos.

Mardo is not here. Maybe he’s gone on an errand.

Maglakadlakad ka; sa ganiyan maiibsan ang pagkabagot mo.

Go for a walk; that way you can ease your boredom.

Magsha-shoppingshopping ako dahil marami akong pera.

I will go shopping because I have plenty of money.

— To move with a specified purpose


Ang sakit ay mawawala kaagad.

The pain will soon go.

— To disappear


Dapat umalis ka ng tanghali.

You must go at noon.

— To leave


Nawala ang paningin ko ng maaga.

My sight went early.

— To be lost


Ang ari-arian namin ay hanggang sa dalampasigan.

Our property goes to the beach.

Ang tratado ay maayos sa abot ng lawig nito/kung ang paguusapan ay paglawig nito.

The treaty is all right as far as it goes.

— To extend, reach


Hindi gumagana ang orasan.

This clock doesn’t go.

Ang dyeneretor na ito ay pinapaandar/pinapagana sa lahat ng oras.

This generator is kept going all the time.

— To be working, perform its proper function


Bakit ka nagpapaa? You could get yourself splintered.

Why do you go barefoot? Baka matinik ka.

— To be in a specified state


Mabibingi ang tao kung sumisid siya ng mahigit sa kaya ng kaniyang di paghinga sa ilalim ng tubig.

A person can go blind if he plunges beyond the limit of his unbreathing.

— To become


Ang ilang mga salita ay lumilipas hanggang tuluyan nang maging burado sa mga diksyunaryo.

Some words are going until they become totally obliterated in dictionaries.

— (of time) To pass


Ang bosina mo ay kanina pa tumutunog sa loob ng isang minuto dahil naipit ang pindutan nito sa umuusling sanga ng palumpong.

Your horn has been going for one minute because its switch got pinched in a jutting branch of bush.

— To sound


May lumalabas na kuwento na/Lumalabas ang kuwento na dati siyang mayaman.

The story goes that she was once rich.

There is a story that she was once rich.

— To be current


Kilala siya sa tawag na Manggoloy.

He goes by the name of Manggoloy.

— To be known


Siya ay mahusay na tagapagsalita kung ano ang siyang pagkatampatan ng mga tagapagsalita.

She is a good speaker as speakers go.

— To be on the average


Ganito ang kanta.

The song goes like this.

The song is like this.

Ganito iyan.

That goes like this./That goes this way.

— To have a certain content, run


Dito dapat ang mga paa mo.

Your feet should go here.

Diyan na. Puwede?

Let it go there. Would you?

— To be placed, lie


Gumanito ka gamit ang ulo mo./Gumanito ka ng ulo mo.

Go like this with your head.

Nag-bang ang pasabog.

The firework went bang.

— To make a certain, motion, sound etc.


Ang husay sa paghahanap ng katipan at ang panahon ng pag-aasawa ay wala sa edad.

The craft in hunting for a lover and the time for going into married life goes not by the age.

Ang pag-promote ay sa edad/ay binabatay sa edad.

Promotion goes by age.

Promotion is in the age.

Panalo si Pacboy kahit labinlima ang agwat niya sa edad sa kalaban. A, wala talaga iyan sa edad; sa galing iyan.

Pacboy won despite the fact that he is fifteen years older than his opponent. Oh, that really does not go by the age; that goes by the competence.

— To be determined


Bigyan mo siya ng mga datus na pagbabatayan.

Give him some data to go upon.

Bigkasin mo ang iyong talumpati na nagagabayan/sa gabay nitong balangkas.

Deliver your speech going upon this outline.

— To be guided


Lahat ay maayos ang takbo sa panahon ng pagpupulong.

Everything went well at the meeting.

Dumiridiretso ka lang.

Just go straight.

Nag-komunista na ang bansa nila.

Their country has gone Communist.

— To take a certain course


Kapag mag-ipon ka para sa kinabukasan, hinding-hindi ka magugutom.

If you save for the future, you will never go hungry.

Hindi ito malilimutan kahit lumipas ang maraming panahon.

It will not go forgotten even with the passing of times.

Ang problema’y nanatiling hindi lutas sa mahabang panahon.

The problem went unresolved for a long period of time.

— To remain


Napupunta lang sa kasintahan mo ang pera mo samantalang hindi ka pa nga sigurado kung magiging asawa mo siya.

All your money just goes on your girlfriend when you are still unsure if you could be married. [Incidental note: Not go to your girlfriend; similar to all your money goes on drinks.]

— To be spent


Mag-fifty-fifty tayo, okey?

Let’s go fifty-fifty, okay?

Maghati tayo sa matrikula ng ating anak.

Let’s go halves on the tuition fee of our child.

— To share


Ang tuhod ko’y humina na naman.

My ankle has gone again.

Bumigay ang clutch.

The clutch has gone.

— To die/to give way, crack, break down


Ang pantalon ay hanggang/abot sa tuhod.

The trousers have gone at the knees.

— To become worn

Here’s a classic example of translating by context: In this juxtaposition, the equivalent of gone (to be worn) is hanggang. Why does such template seem to be incongruous (ang layo)? Or why do such specimen and translation seem incompatible and inconsistent (hindi magkasundo)? HANGGANG—GONE! Hmmm! Now, please be noted first that the sentence the trousers have gone at the knees is taken exactly verbatim by me from the dictionary and not invented by me. Such sentence pattern is common in the US or any other native English speaking places. If we take the definition to become worn of go, then you will notice that the supposed literal and direct equivalent of the sentence gone at the knees would be isinuot/nakasuot sa tuhod in Filipino. One thing will come into your mind: Bakit doon pa ang emphasis ng sentence sa gone (isinuot/nakasuot) sa tuhod samantalang ang trousers ay hindi lang naman sa tuhod nakasuot kundi sa balakang at hips din? Lalabas na mayroon palang pagsuot ng trousers na sa tuhod lang! It thus makes you wonder why. Now do not protest the English usage. The duty that remains with you and with us is to understand the usage and the sentence by context. See the explanations of contextual translation on page 233. Contextually then, we can only conclude that the wearing is in such a manner as to extend to the knees or to cover up the knees. Kaya, hindi mali ang juxtaposition o translation na nangangahulugan lang naman na hanggang o abot sa tuhod ang pagkasuot ng pantalon sa phrase na gone at the knees.


Magsimbasimba/Magsambasamba ka buwan-buwan.

Do go to church every month.

— To be a regular or frequent attender


Magagawa kong ubusin lahat kong yaman para lang sustinihan ang buhay ng mahal ko sa buhay.

I can go as far as exhausting all my riches just to sustain the life of my loved one.

Handa akong magpakasakit/mamuhunan para patunayan ang pagmamahal ko sa Diyos.

I am willing to go to great lengths to prove my love for God.

— To commit oneself to action or expense


Hindi pa rin tumitigil sa pananakop ang Republic of Chingging; giyera na ang panghadlang natin sa kaniya.

The Republic of Chingging still would not desist from occupying territories; going to war is our foil on him

Kapag hindi pa siya magbayad ng utang, mag-korte ka na.

If still he doesn’t pay his loan, go to court then.

— To have recourse


Hindi magkasya ang bagahe sa kotse.

The luggage won’t go in the car.

Ang dalawa ay pasok sa/nasa loob ng anim ng tatlong beses.

2 goes into 6 three times.

— To fit, be contained


Ang kapote ay pang-coatrack.

Coats go on the coatrack.

Coats are for the coatrack.

— To belong


Ang kulay plata at itim ay talagang bagay/tugma/angkop na hitsurang nakakatawag-pansin dito sa bagong disenyo ng motorsiklong ginawa ng Suwaki Motors Corporation.

Silver and black really go to look striking in this new design of motorbike engineered by Suwaki Motors Corporation.

— (of colors) To harmonize, be compatible


Bumibenta na ng mura ang saging dahil sa bagyo.

Bananas are going cheap because of the typhoon.

— To be sold


Pang-charity ang perang iyan./Ang perang iyan ay para sa kawanggawa.

That money goes to charity.

— To be applied


Iyan ang mga katangiang nakakapagpabayani sa isang tao.

Those are the qualities that go to make a person hero.

Nakakapagpakita/Nagpapakita lang ito kung gaano ka kamali.

It all goes to show how wrong you can be.

— To contribute


Ang premyo ay para sa matanda.

The prize goes to the old man.

The prize is for the old man.

To be allotted


Kung para saan ang sinabi ko, para din sa iyo iyan.

What I say goes, that goes for you too.

— To be valid


Kung kaya mo rin lang, kunin mo ng sampung milya./Kung kaya mo TIRAHIN mo ng sampung milya.

If you can do it, go 10 miles.

In Pinoy format, sometimes kunin is used informally popular to mean a generic for other meanings that denote to take on, undertake, deal with, tackle, confront, engage on and the like. And in extreme cases, Pinoys use the colloquial tirahin to mean the same. But tirahin is not suited for children’s’ use or for formal use; only for very informal use. I do not advice tirahin for use; My only purpose for treating these words in this book is to make the reader/user realize that such words popularly used in informal setting especially in usapang kanto are quite exactly the same use of translation as given and explained in this book for the word go. The better substitute for tirahin is the generic kunin. Or better yet, the user should use specific and direct words instead of kunin. Halimbawa, kung iyan ay pagbiyahe, then Lakbayin mo ng 10 milya imbis na Kunin mo ng 10 milya. Kung iyan ay pagtakbo, then Takbuhin mo ng 1 kilometro imbis na Kunin mo ng 1 kilometro. Kung iyan ay pagtrabaho, then Trabahuhin mo sa loob ng isang linggo lang ang bahay niyang pinabagsak ng bagyo imbis na Kunin mo sa loob ng isang linggo lang ang bahay niyang pinabagsak ng bagyo. Kung iyan ay challenge, then Tapusin mo ang pag-solve sa puzzle ng 10 minuto lang imbis na Kunin mo ang pag-solve sa puzzle ng 10 minuto lang.

— To travel a distance of [may be applied to time]


Mag-short way ka.

Go the short way.

Kunin and tirahin may also be a connotation of mag (go).

To follow (a way, road etc.)


Kumalimbang/Tumunog pa lang ito ng anim./Nag-anim na tunog pa lang ito.

It has just gone 6.

To strike, chime etc.


Tumaya sa kabayo ng sampu itong kasama kong walang lubay na manunugal.

This companion of mine who is a compulsive gambler went 10 on a horse.

To risk, wager



Ang ilang mga lumang kasuotan ni Elvis Presley ay ibinibenta.

Some of Elvis Presley’s old apparels go on sale.

Mura ang bigay ng string beans sa mga talipapa ng bayan namin.

String beans are going cheap in the markets of our town.

To be sold

Paanong nangyari na umingay ang mapayapang protesta nang ang isang hindi kaanib ay dumating?

How come the peaceful protest grew noisy when someone who is not a member came?

Kung lumaki ang suporta sa akin, magpapasya ako na huwag umurong sa pagkandidato.

If the support for me grows big, I will then decide not to quit in my candidacy.

— To increase in any way, become larger


Dumidilim sa pagtuloy natin sa tunnel.

It grows dark as we proceed to the tunnel.

Masasanay ka sa pagsasalita sa madla kapag tuluy-tuloy lang ang pagharap mo sa madla.

You will grow used to public speaking if you keep on facing the public.

— To become gradually


Napaibig siya kay Ninita makalipas ang konting mga taon ng pagsasamahan nila bilang magkaibigan.

He grew to love Ninita after a few years of their companionship as friends.

— (with the infinitive) To come to


Nagka-habit/Nagkahilig siya na tupi-tupiin ang kaniyang ilong.

He has grown a habit of twitching his nose.

— To develop

Maliwanag sa akin iyan./Alam ko iyan./Nauunawaan ko iyan.

I have that!

— To understand


Hindi puwede sa akin ito.

I won’t have it.

— To permit


Igigiit ko na sinabi ko.

I will have it that I said so.

— To assert, insist on


Manganganak na ang asawa ko.

My wife is having a baby.

My wife is going to deliver a baby.

— To give birth


Paputulin mo siya ng mga damo.

Please have him cut the grass.

Ipa-rewire mo ang bahay.

Have the house rewired.

— To cause to do (with infinitive) or suffer (with past participle)


Kaniya [ibig sabihin ay kontrolado] ang unang round at maaaring kaniya rin ang mga natitirang rounds kung hindi siya makakagawa ng pagkakamali.

He has the first round and will probably have the rest of the rounds if he makes no mistake.

Base sa bilang ng mga bumoto sa labanan ng mga ‘yes’ at mga ‘no’, panalo/nanaig ang mga ‘no’.

Based on the number of votes in the contest between the ‘yes’ and the ‘no’, the ‘no’s’ have it.

— To gain control of


Alam ko ito sa puso.

I have it by heart.

I know it by heart.

— To know

Huwag mong detenihin ang preso ng labis sa araw na nararapat kung hindi makakasuhan ka ng illegal detention.

Don’t hold a prisoner beyond the required days or else you could be charged for illegal detention.

— To detain


Ang kahon na ito ay kayang ipasok ang lahat kong damit./Ang kahon na ito ay napupuno ng lahat kong damit./Ang kahon na ito ay nakakalulan ng lahat kong damit.

This box holds all my clothes.

Ang bus na ito ay nalululan ang 50 na pasahero.

This bus holds 50 passengers.

— To contain


Ang bandeha/kawali ba na ito ay nakakakulong/nakakapanatili ng tubig?

Does this pan hold water?

— To retain


Walang kwenta ang tingin nila sa buhay.

They hold life cheap.

Sa kaniya, ang pagsusugal ay imoral.

He holds gambling to be immoral.

— To regard as having a specified value, quality or nature


Iangat mo ang kanang kamay at ang ulo mo.

Hold your right hand and your head up.

— To keep in a certain position or condition


Natutukod/Nasusuportahan ng pantukod na posteng ito ang bigat ng bubong.

This column holds the weight of the roof.

— To support, keep in position


May kakayahan siyang makuha’t mapako ang atensiyon ng mga nanonood./May kakayahan siyang tangnan ang atensyon ng mga nanonood.

He has the ability to hold the audience’s attention.

Sa unang yugto ng laro, ang Alaska ay nanatili/kumapit sa 5 punto lamang.

In the 1st quarter of the game, Alaska held to only 5 points.

— To keep


Huwag mong ipilit sa akin ang pangako ko na pakasalan kita. Niloko mo na ako.

Don’t hold to my word that I am going to marry you. You have cheated on me.

Papanagutin kita na bayaran ang pasyenteng napuruhan mo sa aksidenteng nilikha mo.

I will hold you liable to compensate the patient you have injured in the accident that you caused.

— To force (someone) to abide by a promise etc.


Kontrolado/Hawak ng militar ang daungan ng San Catandan.

The military holds the San Catandan port.

— (Military) To keep control of


Taglay/Hawak niya ang pagkapangulo sa loob ng apat na taon mula ngayon.

He holds the presidency for four years from now.

— To be in possession of


Pangunahan mo ang Branch 5 ng korteng ito.

Do hold the branch 5 of this court.

— To preside over


Mapapangunahan mo ba ang pagpupulong natin sa Biernes?

Can you hold our meeting on Friday?

— To conduct, carry on


Diyan ka sa notang ti sa loob ng 8 segundo bago ka mag-iba ng tono.

Hold the ti note for 8 seconds before you change tone.

— (Music) To sustain (a note)


Ganoon pa rin ang alok ko; hindi nagbabago.

My offer still holds; it doesn’t change.

— To continue


Nananatili ang batas munisipal sa kabila ng pagpapalit ng kumokontrol ng kapangyarihan na galing sa labas tulad nang sa panahon ng pananakop ng Hapon at ng Amerika.

The municipal law still holds despite change of exernal controlling powers like the time of the Japanese and the American occupations.

— To remain whole under pressure; to remain valid


Tingnan mo nga naman. Ngayon mayroon ka nang tindahan ng baril.

Look at that! Now you are already keeping a gun store.

— To own and manage


Wala ang tindahan na ito ng hanap namin.

This shop doesn’t keep what we want.

— To carry in stock for sale


Tuparin mo naman ang iyong pangako. Inaasahan ko ito.

Please keep your promise. I’m counting on it.

— To fulfil (a promise)


Waw!/Aba! May 20 katulong ka sa bahay.

Wow! You are keeping 20 maids in your house.

— To employ in personal service


Tinutupad ang Banal na Hapunan sa relihiyong ito.

Holy Supper is kept in this religion.

— To observe or celebrate


Kung maglalagi (sa pagbagtas) ka sa kalyeng ito makakarating ka sa nayon.

If you keep on this road, you’ll arrive at the village.

— To continue, to stay


Hindi tumatagal ang bagoong kung kulang sa asin.

Fermented fish doesn’t keep if it is deficient in salt.

— To remain in good condition, not be spoiled, over a period of time


Inabuso ka. Mapagparaya ka kasi./Inabuso ka. Ugali/hilig mo kasing magparaya./Inabuso ka. Sanay ka kasing magparaya./Inabuso ka. Nahirati ka kasi sa pagpaparaya.

You are abused. You are keeping tolerance, that’s why.

Bakit ka palapahuli?

Why do you keep late hours?

Bakit ka palapuyat?/Bakit ka palapahuling oras matulog sa gabi?

Why do you keep late at night?

— To regulate one’s conduct or habits in accordance with


Ang masamang panahon ay pumipigil sa amin na tumungo.

Bad weather keeps us from going.

— To prevent

Kapag kumuha ka ng pagsasanay sa Tesda, madali kang makakakuha ng trabaho sa ibang bansa.

If you get a Tesda training, you will easily land a job abroad.

— To obtain to one’s benefit


Napa-trouble ako ng dahil sa iyo.

I landed myself in trouble because of you.

— To place or find (oneself) in a particular state or situation

Ang manisi sa puntong ito ay (nangangahulugang) tumanggi sa indibidwal na pananagutan.

To lay blame at this point is to deny individual responsibility.

Napatawa ako. Sinubukan niyang angkinin ang sikat na linyang nagpayaman sa aking kapatid.

It made me laugh. He was trying to lay claim on the popular line that made my brother rich.

— To impute (blame, responsibility etc.)


Ang magpataw ng embargo ay ang ating opsyon laban sa bansang iyan.

To lay an embargo would be our option against that country.

— To impose as a penalty etc.

Ngayon kung magagawa mong kumbinsihin ang mga botante, papirmahin mo agad sila sa petisyon.

Now if you can manage to persuade the voters, have them instantly sign the petition.

Kaya mo pa ba ang isa pa?

Can you manage another?

— (often with infinitive) To succeed in accomplishing or handling, but with difficulty

Kung saan ang interes mo, ito/iyan ang gawin/abutin mo.

Where your interest lies, go for it.

Ang interes ko ay nasa trabaho.

My interest lies on the job.

To be placed



Ang Samody City ay nasa malapit sa dagat.

Samody City lies near the sea.

To be situated in a specified place


Ang lunsod ay nakalatag sa harap namin.

The town lay before us.

To be spread out to the view


Ang pasya na huwag magkasala ay nasa/nakasalalay saiyo.

The decision to not sin lies with you.

— To rest, remain


Hahayaan natin ang bagay na ito na nandiyan lang.

We’ll let the matter lie.

— To stay undisturbed

Bigyang atensyon mo ang mga detalye.

Look on the details.

— To pay attention


Paharap sa kanluran ang bintana.

The window looks north.

— To be facing in a particular direction


Ang actor ay hitsura ng papel na gagampanan niya.

The actor looked the role.

Mukha siyang edad niya.

She looks her age.

— To have an appearance that befits or corresponds to


Parang/Mukhang/Sa tingin ko ay/Tila mapo-promote siya.

He is looking to be promoted.

— (followed by an infinitive) To expect, anticipate


Magpapakomportable pa ang aircon sa kwarto.

An air-condition will make the room more comfortable.

— To cause to acquire more specified quality


Kung aayusin mo ang kama ngayon, handa ka na mamayang gabi pagtulog mo.

If you make the bed now, you’ll be ready to go to sleep later in the evening.

— To arrange


Ano sa tingin mo ang kabuuan?/Ano sa akala mo ang kabuuan?/Ano ang iniisip mo na kabuuan?/Ano sa pagtuos/pagkalkula/pagtantiya mo ang kabuuan?/Sa pagsasaalang-alang mo, ano ang kabuuan?

What do you make the total?

— To reckon as being


Ang dalawang pinta ay makakabuo ng/makakagawa ng/tutumbas sa ikaapat na bahagi ng isang galon.

2 pints make 1 quart.

— To add up to, be the equivalent of


Magiging mahusay siyang abogado.

He will make a good lawyer.

— To turn out to be, have the qualities needed for


Ang pagganap niyang iyan ay makakapagpatagumpay sa kaniya.

That performance will make him.

— To assure the success of


Mararating mo ito kung magmamadali ka.

You can make it if you hurry.

Makukuha ba nila ang finals?

Will they make the finals?

— To succeed in arriving at (a desired goal)


Kumikita siya ng 200 sa isang araw.

He makes 200 a day.

— To earn (money etc.)


Ang magandang saloobing iyan ay pang-magandang samahan./Ang magandang saloobing iyan ay puwede sa isang magandang samahan./Ang magandang saloobing iyan ay makakapagpaganda ng samahan.

That kind of attitude makes for harmonious relationship.

— To lead to a specified result

Sige na, ihanda mo na ang hapunan.

Go get the dinner.

Madali ang paghahanda ng almusal sa isang masipag.

Getting the breakfast is easy for the diligent.

— To prepare


Dapat mapatahimik mo si Bod-bod.

You should be able to get Bod-bod to keep quiet.

— To induce, persuade


Magugustuhan mo siya.

You’ll get to like him.

— To grow, come gradually


Pumagilid ka para hindi ka mahagip.

Get to the side so you will not be hit.

Dapat pumakwarto ka na.

You should get to bed now.

— To go, take oneself off


Huwag mong pagalitin si Kermel.

Do not get Kermel angry.

Pagsamahin mo ang mga gamit mo.

Get your things together.

— To make, bring into a certain state or position

Para sa aking anak, ang manyikang ito ay hindi basta-basta.

This doll meant a lot to my child.

— To have a specified degree of importance


Pakibantayan mo ang bag ko./Ipagbantay mo ako ng bag ko.

Please mind my bag for me.

— To have charge of, take care of


Incidental note: For me/for him/for them is a peculiar format equivalent to our paki- or any sense that indicates doing someone a favor, depending if that someone is the one speaking or the one spoken for. Examples: pakibukas ng pinto — please open the door for me/for us/for them. In Filipino, there is no need to place the equivalent of for me/for us/for them.


Kaya ka natapyok kasi hindi mo tinitingnan ang hakbang mo/hindi ka nag-iingat sa hakbang mo.

You stumbled because you did not mind your steps.

— To look out for, be careful of


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Would you mind closing the door?

— To object to (often in polite questions or commands)


Our popular notion is that the phrase would you mind is would you please when formed in an interrogative manner. No. Rather, this is actually asking a question whether the one spoken with should not protest or object to the point in issue. If we take it directly and not contextually, the translation would appear this way: Hindi ba okey sa iyo na buksan ang pinto?/Tututol ka ba kung buksan ang pinto? Since such translation sounds awkward, then pagbigyan na lang natin ang ating notion. After all, if we render it the Filipino way, the popular logical format with us would be Pakibuksan naman ang pinto which is convertible to Okey lang ba sa iyo na buksan ang pinto?


Intindihin mo ang asikasuhin/inaasikaso/intindihin/problema mo.

Mind your own business.

— To concern oneself with


Pakinggan/pansinin mo ang sinasabi ko.

Mind what I say.

— To pay attention to, heed


Hindi mo sinusunod ang aking mga bilin.

You are not minding my instructions.

— To obey


Ingat kang hindi maihulog iyang baso.

Mind you don’t knock that glass over.

— To make sure, to take care (Wiktionary)


Hindi mo dapat alalahanin ang kakulangan ng ginhawa.

You mustn’t mind the discomfort.

— To worry about


Huwag mong isipin/intindihin ang tismis.

Don’t mind about the gossip.

— verb intransitive To worry


Kung walang tututol/Kung okey lang, bubuksan ko ang bintana.

If nobody minds, I’ll open the window.

— To be vexed or have an objection


Pansinin mo ngayon! Dapat kang magmadali.

Now mind! You must hurry.

— To be attentive

Itiwala mo iyan sa mga kamay ng Diyos.

Place that on God’s hands.

Ilagak mo si Kikay, ang marikit mong anak, sa pangangalaga ni Lola habang nasa ibang bansa ka.

Place Kikay, your lovely child, in Lola’s care while you are out of the country.

— (followed by ‘in’, ‘on’ or ‘upon’) To bestow (confidence, trust etc.) upon something or someone


Alam ko ang mukha niya pero hindi ko matandaan.

I knew his face but couldn’t place him.

— To identify by recalling the context or circumstances connected


Ano ba ang puwedeng opsyon: ipuhunan ang 10% mula sa dibidendo?

What might be the option: to place the 10% out of the dividend?

— To invest (money)


Jackpot sa akin na ang Pacific University ay nag-order ng 1 karton ng 200 na kopya nitong book.

It’s a jackpot for me as the Pacific University placed an order of 1 carton of 200 copies of this book.

— To give (an order for goods etc.)

Ang testimonya ay talaga namang hindi pala totoo.

The testimony proved quite false.

— To be shown by later knowledge to be


Pagastusin mo siya.

Put him to expense

— (followed by ‘to’) To subject


Itinaya niya ang huling pera niya sa kabayong iyan.

He put his last money on that horse.

— (followed by ‘on’) To gamble


Tinantiya niya ang presyo sa limang piso sa ganitong mga piraso ng holen.

He put the price at five pesos for these pieces of marble.

— To estimate


Magpahalaga ka ng mataas sa kaniyang mga serbisyo.

Put a high value on his services.

— (followed by ‘on’ or ‘upon’) To attribute


Kailangang mapahukay mo ang mga tropa ng mga trintsera/bambang.

You should put the troops to digging trenches.

— (followed by ‘to’ and present participle) To set (someone) to work of a specified kind


Paprublemahin mo ang isip niya.

Put his mind to a problem.

— (followed by ‘to’ or ‘into’) To apply, bring to bear

Sasabihin ko sa inyo kung ano ang nangyari, pero hayaan ninyo munang ilarawan/ipakilala/iharap/paumpisahan ko ang tagpo.

I’ll tell you what happened, but first let me set the scene.

— To introduce or describe


Pahalagahan ang tungkulin bago ang karangalan.

To set duty before glory.

— To value (someone or something) in a certain way


Padesisyunin mo na ngayon ang kasosyo mo sa negosyo.

Set your business partner to decide now.

— To set someone thinking


Set your heart free.

Palayain mo ang puso mo.

Huwag mong paungusin ang kawad.

Do not set the wire jutting.

— To cause to be in a specified condition or state


Isipin mo na lang na bagay na bagay sa iyo ang kapote.

Just assume that the coat sets well with you.

— To be becoming; be suitable; fit (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)


Mangyaring magpangiti ka ng maganda sa mga nanonood sa pamamagitan ng pagtatanghal mo.

Please raise a beautiful smile on the audience with your performance.

To give rise to


Ang aktibong pagsali namin sa “Barangay Kontra Rabbies” ay nagpapabatid sa tumataas na banta ng rabbies sa mga komunidad.

Our active involvement in “Barangay Kontra Rabbies” raises awareness on the rising threat of rabbies in the communities.

To institute, initiate


Ang pumukaw ng malakas na pananampalataya: siyang ating simulain!

Raising a strong faith: our tenet!

To call up, evoke; to give vent to (a loud cry, shout etc.)


Bakit ka nang-uudyok/nag-uudyok ng pagkakawatak-watak sa ating kapisanan?

Why are you raising schism in our organization?

— To incite


Ang preview ay pumupukaw/gumigising/bumubunsod/nagpapaalab ng interes sa gaganaping konsiyerto, na humihikayat sa akin upang bumili ng mga tiket para sa kapakanan ng mga kaanib ng aming kapisanan.

The preview raises one’s interest in the upcoming concert, urging me then to purchase tickets for the benefit of the members of our club.

— To stir up (a person or persons) to some action


Bakit sumusubok kang tumawag/pumukaw ng mga kaluluwa sa puntod. Walang kwenta iyan. Tawagin/pukawin mo sa halip ang espiritu ng Diyos na/upang pumasok sa buhay mo.

Why do you attempt to raise souls in the grave? That is nonsense. Raise the spirit of God instead to come into you.

— To call up, evoke (the spirit of a deceased person)


Sa araw ng paghuhukom, ibabalik ng Diyos ang mga tao sa muling pagkabuhay para hukuman sila.

On the judgment day, God will raise men into resurrection in order to judge them.

— To bring back to life


Magreklamo/Maglatag/Maghain kayo ng reklamo sa tagapagpasyang itinalaga.

Raise your complaint before the arbiter appointed.

— To institute, initiate (a complaint, claim etc.)


Bumuo ka ng sandatahang sanay sa masungit na kalupaan para ipadala at lumaban sa mga bandido sa bundok ng Cormudus.

Raise an army drilled in rugged terrains to be sent off to fight against the bandits on the mountain of Cormudus.

Kung makakatulong kang mag-ipon ng puhunan kaagad, isasama ka namin sa korporasyon.

If you can help raise capital sooner, we will join you in the corporation.

To collect together


Mangyaring ilabas ninyo na ang pagtutol ninyo ngayon din dahil isasara na natin kaagad ang pagmungkahi ng kandidato.

Please raise your objection this minute because we will close the nomination at once.

— To bring up (a question, objection etc.) for consideration

Napapa-trouble ako kapag kasama kita. Mayabang kasi ang dating mo sa tingin ng mga tao.

I run into trouble when going along with you. It’s because you look boastful in the observation of folks.

Nagkautang ako dahil sa luho mo ng paggastos habang ikaw ay nasa kolehiyo ng mga nakaraang taon.

I ran into debt because of your lavishness in spending while in college for the past years.

— (with ‘into’) To pass into a specified situation, condition, etc.


Ang hampas ay nagpaikot sa kaniya.

The blow sent him spinning.

— To cause to behave or move in a specified way


Nag-utos siya para sa ilang inumin.

He sent out for some beverage.

— (often with ‘out’) To send someone to fetch something

Anumang mabigat na bagay ay puwede/makakatugon sa layunin.

To fulfill (a requirement)


Ang kapalaran ay nakitungo sa kaniya ng hindi maganda.

Fate served her badly.

— To treat


Puwede na ang 200 na mga silya sa okasyong ito.

Two hundred chairs will serve for this occasion.

— To be sufficient for a particular need

Maawa ka sa dukha.

Show mercy towards the poor.

— To give evidence of (feelings, character, disposition)

Ang talento niya ay malamang mangahulugan ng tagumpay sa kaniyang kinabukasan./Ang talento niya ay maaaring ikapagtagumpay niya sa kaniyang hinaharap.

His talent is likely to spell success for his future.

— To mean

Ang bahay niya ay nasa isang sulok.

His house stands at the corner.

— To be in a certain place


Ang temperature ay nandiyan sa 25’C.

The temperature stands at 25’C.

— To have a certain position or be at a certain point on a scale



Ang dibidendo ay nananatili sa limang bahagdan.

The dividend stands at 5%.

— To remain unchanged


Magkakatsansa siya na manalo ng suwerte sa karerang ito.

He will stand to win a fortune on this race.

— (with infinitive ‘to gain’, ‘to lose’ etc.) To be in a position to gain, lose etc.


Siya ay kakandidato para sa Sanggunian.

He is standing for the council.

He is candidating for the council.

— (British, with ‘for’) To be a political candidate


Luma man, ang mga tuntuning ito ay magtatagal/mananatili/ganiyan pa rin.

Old as they are, these rules will stand.

— To remain valid or effective


Nakatakda kang i-trial ngayon./Nakatakda kang litisin ngayon.

You are set to stand trial today.

— To undergo


Diyan mo ang mesa sa sulok.

Stand the table at the corner.

— To place in a certain position


Makakatagal ito ng pagputok hanggang 1,300°.

It will stand firing up to 1,300°.

— To support without deformation


Di niya matiis ang ingay.

She cannot stand the noise.

— To endure


Siya ay anim na talampakan.

He stands six feet.

— To be of specified height


Hayaang ganiyan lang ang dough/masa sa loob ng isang oras bago ito hurnohin.

Let the dough stand for an hour before baking it.

— To remain in the same position or place


Atensiyon ka lang.

Stand at attention.

You just attention.

Diyan ka sa malayo.

Stand aloof.

— To be or remain in a specified position, condition etc.


Tumatag ka./Manatili kang matatag.

Stand firm.

Paano ba siya naninindigan sa katanungang ito?

How does he stand on this question?

— To maintain a position or resolve etc.


Diyan ka lang kung saan ka.

Stand where you are.

— To cease walking, halt


Ang mga nakarinig ng mensaheng ipinahayag ay makikinabang sapagkat sila’y makakasumpong ng biyaya sa kanilang mga ginagawa.

Those who hear the message delivered stand to benefit as they will find blessings in their deeds.

Wala siyang pag-asa/panama/tsansa laban sa iba.

He doesn’t stand a chance against the others.

— Stand a chance—to have a possibility of succeeding, winning etc.

Kapag kinansela mo ang mga hindi kailangan, inaalis mo ang sarili mo sa kalagayang nagkakraming sa pag-aaral.

If you strike out the unnecessary, you would be getting yourself out of a cramming condition in learning.

— (with ‘out’) to cancel or erase


Puma-kanluran siya.

He struck north.

— To proceed in a specified direction


Bigla kong naisip na pumunta sa Davao ngayon mismo.

It struck me to go to Davao this instant.

— (of an idea or thought) To occur suddenly to


Parang imposible sa akin ang pagkumbinsi kay Ginoong Taramao.

Convincing Mr. Taramao strikes me as impossible.

— To seem to (someone)


May dating sa amin ang gilas ng disensyo ng kotseng Sporche.

We were struck by the elegance of the design of the Sporche car.

— To make an impression or impact on


Nag-uugat ng malalim sa lupa ang puno.

The tree strikes deep into the ground.

— To cause (a plant) to take root


Binagtas/Binalagbag/Sinumang/Sinalunga niyang bigla ang pinakakalsada.

He struck the main road.

— To come across unexpectedly


Nakasagupa sila ng ibat-ibang hirap.

They struck various difficulties.

— To come up against


Naapektuhan siya ng balita.

The news struck him.

— To wound or affect the feelings of


Mag-pose ka sa batong iyan kung saan nasa likod mo ang sikat-araw. Tiyak magandang silweta ang kalalabasan.

Strike a pose against that rock formation where sunrise is behind you. It will surely be a nice silhouette to develop.

Sa puntong ito, ang magwalang-pagpapahalaga sa opinyon ng mga rebelde ay hindi makabubuti sa Peace Process na kapapanukala pa lamang.

At this point, striking apathy towards the rebels would not be of good to the Peace Process just proposed.

— To assume (an attitude or pose)


Sa wakas, naka-siyamnapu ako ng nabilang na mga dumadaang motorsiklo sa kalyeng ito matapos ang 10 minuto na pag-aabang para magbilang.

Finally, I struck 90 of counted out passing motorbikes after 10 minutes of waiting in order to count.

— To arrive at (a bargain, average, balance etc.)


Sa tingin mo kaya makakasumpong tayo ng pugita sa bahaging ito ng dagat.

Do you think we can strike octopus in this part of the sea?

— To make a discovery of

Note: To us here, among all the sample terms treated in the book series, take is the most thrilling, having the trickiest extra usages that may only go well by contextual translating. In all these usages, direct or word to word equating has been tested by me to be quite awkward (see the meaning of equate at the Definition of Terms). These usages are the keys to a whole lot of Filipino-English translation templates unknown to most novice Pinoys.


The reader-learner is directed to catch a good read of the book How do you say it in English?, 2010 Edition, Enhanced for the heavy and full-length treatment on take.

Magpabalbas ka minsan.

Wear a beard sometimes.

— To have on one’s person habitually


Iklian mo ang buhok mo.

Wear your hair short.

— To arrange (one’s hair, clothes etc.) in a specified way


May ngiti ka dapat/Magpakita ka ng ngiti dapat/Ngumiti ka dapat kapag dadaan ka sa mga tagahatol.

You should wear a smile every time you pass by the judges.

— To have (an expression) on face


Ang pag-asa nila’y humina/numipis.

Their hopes wore thin.

— To come to a specified state

Note: To us here, among all the sample terms treated in this topic, work is the most thrilling second to take, having the trickiest extra usages that may only go well by contextual translating.


Ganiyan, dahil kailangan kasi na lumuwag ang buhol kasabay ng pag-ulos ng poste/tulos.

That’s so, since the knot has to work loose with the shoving of the stake.

Nai-ganiyan/Na-ganiyan ng kamisa niya ang likod niya.

His shirt worked up his back.

— To get into a specified condition or position by movement


See the first edition How do you say it in English?, 2010 Edition, Enhanced for the treatment on the especial usage or the prepositions especially of up in relation to the novice Pinoy’s atypical way and deficiency in English translating.


Masasabi mo base sa kung ano ang pinapakita/ikinikilos ng mukha niya, na ito ay masamang balita./Masasabi mo base sa kung ano ang iginagalaw/ipinapahiwatig ng mukha niya, na ito ay masamang balita.

You could tell by the way his face worked that it was bad news.

Gumagalaw-galaw/May ikinikilos/May ipinapahiwatig ang mga kamay niya sa kaniyang kandungan habang siya’y nagsasalita.

Her hands were working in her lap as she talked.

— To show emotion, especially distress, by muscular twitches or nervous movements of the limbs


Magiging mas madali na dumiretso/magpatuloy paurong.

It would be easier to work backwards.

— To proceed or make progress in some action or task


Umusad siya ng mabagal sa ungos ng bangin./Nagpumilit siya ng mabagal sa umuungos na parte ng bangin.

He worked slowly along the ledge of the ravine.

— To progress with difficulty


Um-effort siya sa pagpakitang gilas sa iyo.

He worked at impressing you.

Magsikap/Magpilit sa abot ng makakaya.

To work at one’s scales.

— To apply oneself with effort, especially to one’s studies


Hikayatin mong mabuti si kuya mo hanggang sumang-ayon siya na sumama sa atin./Ideyahan mo ang kuya mo hanggang mapasang-ayon mo siya na sumama sa atin./Utakan mo ang kuya mo hanggang maisipan niyang sumama sa atin.

Work on your brother until he agrees to come with us.

— (with ‘on’) To use wiles or persuasion


Kung matiyaga lang eh, bubuti rin./Kung matiyaga lang eh, bubuti rin iyan./Gaganda rin naman kung matiyaga lang./Napapabuti rin naman kung matiyaga lang.

Things will work out if one will just be patient.

— (with ‘out’) To come to a satisfactory conclusion


Tingin ko hindi natin dapat na pagurin/mapahirapan/sagarin ang ating malalaking mama na mga seven footer para maireserba sila sa huling yugto.

I think that we should not work our big seven footer men in order to reserve them for the last quarter.

— To cause to labor


Makakapagmilagro ba iyang dasal sa diyus-diyusang batong iyan?

Can that prayer to that idol stone work a miracle?

— To bring about by labor or as if by labor


Pinilit niya/Sinikap niya (ang sarili niya) doon (na lumakad/bumagtas/tumulay) sa ungos/umuusling bahagi. ☼

He worked his way along the ledge.

Bawat isa dito ay alam na nag-effort ako para maging pangulo ng opisinang ito./Bawat isa dito ay alam na pinaghirapan ko paunti-unti para maging pangulo ng opisinang ito./Bawat isa dito ay alam na pinagtiyagaan ko para maging pangulo ng opisinang ito.

Everyone here knows that I worked myself up to be president of this office.

— To make (one’s way) or cause (oneself) to advance by slow stages and with effort


Tingnan mo iyan. Pinapanik mo si Tita dahil sa iyong kuwento.

Look at that. You worked Auntie into a panic because of your story.

— (with ‘up’, ‘into’, or ‘up into’) To excite or stimulate the emotions of


Tinustusan/Sinuportahan ko sa pagkolehiyo ang sarili ko ng kung anu-anong mapagkakakitaan na hindi ako umasa sa mga magulang ko.

I worked my way through college without depending on my parents.

— To pay for (oneself or one’s way) by doing a paid job or jobs or by some service


Masu-solve/Malulutas/Masasagot mo ba ang y = 1/23 x +14 (finding the parallel slope and perpendicular slope)?

Can you work y = 1/23 x +14 (finding the parallel slope and perpendicular slope)?

— To solve (an equation)


Kami ang nananagot na magbantay sa bahaging ito. Kay Rodello naman, kaniya ang East Coast./Kami ang nananagot na magbantay sa bahaging ito. Kay Rodello naman, doon siya sa East Coast./Kami ang nananagot na magbantay sa bahaging ito. Sa parte naman ni Rodello, ang East Coast ang kargo/binabantayan/obligasyon/sakop niya.

We are dutybound to guard this area. For Rodello’s part, he works the East Coast.

Ako ang nananagot na sakahin ang bahaging ito. Sa parte naman ni Romar, trabaho/sakop/saklaw niya ang silangang parte./Ako ang nananagot na sakahin ang bahaging ito. Kay Romar naman, kaniya ang silangang parte.

I am duty-bound to till this area. For Romar’s part, he works the eastern part.

— To have (a region etc.) as one’s sphere of operations


Mapapagana/Mapapaandar mo ba ang bomba/poso?

Can you work the pump?

— To cause to operate


Nakapiglas siya sa kaniyang tanikala sa paa./Nailabas niya ang sarili niya sa kaniyang tanikala sa paa.

He worked himself out of his fetters.

— To bring (oneself or an object) into or out of specified condition by slow and especially laborious effort


Pahirapan kung isuot mong mabuti/pilit ang sarili mo sa siwang na ito.

It would be a struggle to work yourself into this crevice.

Isingit ng mabuti ang kutsilyo sa awang.

To work a knife into a crack.

— (with ‘in’ or ‘into) To insert gradually by pressure or other careful manipulation


Ihalo mo sa timplada ang mantika ng paisa-isang patak/pakonti-konting patak/ng papatak-patak.

Work the oil into the mixture drop by drop.

— (with ‘in’ [or into]) To mix or blend especially by stirring


Tanggalin ang sobrang timbang.

To work off surplus weight.

— (with ‘off’) To get rid of by expending energy


Huwag kang mag-atubili na ilabas/ihayag ang mabigat mong damdamin sa akin.

Don’t hesitate to work off your leaden emotion on me.

— (with ‘off’) To find an outlet for (rage, excess energy etc.)


Ang higit na mabuti ay pakaayusin ang problema sa inyo mismo.

The best thing is to work the problem out among yourselves.

— (with ‘out’) To find (a solution or compromise) or solve (a problem) by an effort of the mind and will


Magpakana ka/Umisip ka ng pakana/Isipan mo ng pakana para makakuha ka ng dagdag permiso.

Try to work it so that you get some extra leave.

— (popular, with ‘it’) To contrive


Kailangan niyang perpekin/ensayuhing mabuti ang huling galaw bago ang konsiyerto.

She will have to work up the last movement before the concert.

— (with ‘up’) To perfect the performance of by practice


Huwag mong kaligtaan ang alinman sa iyong hapunan.

Don’t leave any of your dinner.

— To omit to eat


Isasantabi niya ang mga sulat na iyon hanggang bukas.

He’ll leave those letters till tomorrow.

— To put off dealing with



PREPOSITIONS — In some cases prepositions are used as adverbs. Find out herein.


Paki-charge ng danyos ko sa dati kong lagak sa iyo na isandaang libong piso.

Please charge my damage against my previous deposit with you of one hundred thousand pesos.

To be charged to or deducted from (an account, or something thought of as an account)


Ilagay mo ang silya katabi/kasunod ng pader/dingding.

Put the chair against the wall.

Next to


Nakatayo ito sa labas pasalungat sa langit.

It stood out against the sky.

In contrast to


Mga yelo [batong yelo] sa bintana./Mga yelong lumapat/nakalapat sa bintana.

Hailstones against the window.

Ilagay mo ang hagdan sa dingding/pader.

Put the ladder against the wall.

In contact with



An old American joke—


A man is peeing (umiihi), facing a tall wall, when a cop (pulis) catches him.

Cop: Hey you! I’m apprehending you for that infraction.

Man: But sir, please don’t arrest me. I’m not a bad guy.

Cop: You have no justification. That you are doing is against the law!

Man: No sir, it’s not against the law; it’s against the wall.



Mas mabuting pagsabihan ang komunidad tungkol sa panganib ng pananatili malapit sa dalampasigan.

It is better to tell the community against the danger of staying near the beach.



Laging maganda ang naghahanda para sa panahon ng taghirap.

It is always good to make a preparation against the dearth.

In anticipation of


Itong punyal ang nais kong ialok sa iyo kapalit ng pribilehiyong hinihiling ko na ako ang maging pinuno ng kabayuhan.

This dagger is what I wish to offer to you against the privilege I ask that I should be the head of the cavalry.

In exchange for

Ang eroplano ay hayun sa itaas, sa mga ulap.

The airplane is up among the clouds.

— Surrounded by, in the midst of




Makakasumpong ka ng ilang pagkain sa malapit-lapit.

You will find some food around.[You will find some food around somewhere.]

— Near, more or less in the vicinity of [second English sentence: around is used as prep]





Bandang tanghali ang pag-alis ng barko.

The departure of the ship is around midday.

— Approximately


Daanan mo ako dito banda sa tapat ng terminal./Daanan mo ako dito sa may tapat ng terminal.

Pick me up here now around the façade of the terminal.

— Within, in the area of



Pinanghinaan siya sa iyong pag-alis.

He was downhearted at your leaving.

Sa kakulitan ko, sa wakas ay nagpasya ang tagapangulo na pirmahan ang panukalang bonus.

At my persistence, the chairman finally decided to sign the bonus proposal.

Sa panunulsol ng mga talunang koponan, hindi sumipot ang defending champion. Lahat tuloy sila ay pinarusahan.

At the instigation of the losing teams, the defending champion did not appear. They were all penalized in effect.

— Expressing cause or occasion of an action or state


Kung eksperto ka sa lansehan, bakit di ka yumayaman sa kalokohan mong iyan?

If you are an expert at trickery, why is it you don’t get rich with that wile of yours?

Dahil ikaw ay nasa bisyo mo na naman, asahan mo na hindi ka pag-aaralin ni Mama ngayong semestre.

Since you are at your vice again, you should expect that Mama will not send you to school this semester.

— Expressing manner of action or employment


Tayo’y nasa pinabilis na tulin. Kumapit kang mahigpit!

We are at accelerated speed. Hold on tight.

Ang Moheca at ang Rasso ay naglalaban/may labanan.

Moheca and Rasso are at war.

— Expressing situation or condition



Sige ang katatrabaho niya sa libro niya.

He is working away at his book.

— Continuously, steadily


Humina ang apoy.

The fire burned away.

Ang tapang niya’y tumabang/nawala ng unti-unti.

His courage faded away.

— At an end or to a weakened or lessened condition or degree


Take note: the adverb away is preceded by an appropriate verb.


Ibabaling ko ang aking mukha.

I’m turning my face away.

— In a different direction



Tumakbo siya ng tuloy pa sa/ng sige pa sa kalye.

He ran further down the street.

— Further along


Isinara na nila ang tindahan.

They closed the shop down.

— Into a state of non-operation [Wiktionary]




Ito ang pinakamahusay na makina para gilingin ang mais ng pinong-pino.

This is the best machine to grind the corn down.

— To a fine consistency


Nagawa niyang i-80 pahina ang kaniyang tesis/sanaysay.

He got his thesis down to 80 pages.

— Into a more concentrated form


Isulat ninyo ang dikta/dinidikta ko.

Take my dictation down.

— In writing


Hindi ninyo/ninuman maaawat/mapipigil ang taong mabuti.

You can’t keep a good man down.

— In check [under restraint or control]


Namamatay na ang apoy.

The fire dies down.

— To a less active condition


Bakit sobrang/masyadong puno ng mga bato ang kahon?

Why is the box loaded down with stones?

— Very much

Nakakabuhay ng loob malaman na karamihan sa inyo ay pabor/sumusuporta sa aking kandidatura.

It is heartening to note that most of you are for my candidacy.

— In support of, in favor of


Kasinghusay rin na gamitin ang kamias sa halip na kamatis sa maraming lutuin na gumagamit ng kamatis.

It’s equally good to use tree cucumber for tomato in most recipes that use tomato.

— In place of


Minsan, sa kabila ng pagsisikap natin na maging mabuti, may mga taong masama ang tingin sa atin.

At times, for all our effort to be good, there are people who look down on us to be unwholesome.

Sa kabila ng kagandahan niya, may ibang mga dahilan ako ng pagkagusto sa kaniya.

For all her beauty, I have my other reasons for liking her.

— In spite of [with ‘all’]


Dumating ka ganitong oras. Iniisip ko na nagpasya kang umalis sa hotel dahil sa/epekto ng pagkabagot.

You came here this hour. I think you decided to leave the hotel for boredom.

— As the effect of


Kinakagalitan ka ng nanay mo dahil sa paulit-ulit at garapal na pagkabugasok/ kapabayaan mo.

Your mother is scolding you for your repeated and flagrant carelessness.

— Because of


Tungkol sa parte ko/Sa parte ko mas nais kong manatili dito.

For my part I prefer to remain here.

— Regarding

Ang kasong sadyang pagpatay na isinampa laban kay Mardek ay nagpatuloy kung saan ang tagausig ay nagpahayag na ginawa ni Mardek ang krimen sa motibo ng pagsiselos na nalaman sa/mula sa kaniyang hitsura nang siya ay tinatanong. Bagaman ang motibo ay hindi naman talaga tinatanggap na ebidensya sa korte ganunpaman ito ay nakakatulong sa pag-alam ng kaso at minsan ay dinudulugan.

The murder charge against Mardek prospered with the prosecutor expounding that Mardek committed the crime from motive of jealousy which was determined from his appearance at the time he was cross-examined. Though motive is not necessarily honored as evidence in court yet it aids in the determination of the case and so resorted to sometimes.

— Vindicating cause


Hindi mo makikilala ang isang kambal na kapatid sa isa pa.

You cannot tell one twin sibling from the other.

Mahirap masabi kung pinakamahusay si Ramina sa ibang mga kandidata.

It’s hard to tell if Ramina is the best from the other candidates.

— Indicating a relationship of distinction



Bagaman 30 kilometro na ang layo namin, nakikita pa rin ang palasyo.

Though we are already 30 kilometers away, the palace is still in view.

Susuportahan kita sa saklaw/sa abot ng aking makakaya.

I will support you in my means.

— Within


Maglinya kayo ng apatan.

Line up in fours.

— By groups


Nakasuot ka dapat ng/Magsuot ka ng pormal na kasuotan kapag dadalo ka sa kasalan.

Be in formal attire if you are going to attend the wedding ceremony.

— Wearing


Nababalot ng putik.

Covered in mud.

— With


Sa loob ng 45 segundong natitira, sa tingin mo kaya ay makakahabol pa ang paborito mong koponan?

In 45 seconds left, do you think your favorite team can catch up?

— During; within


Habang tumatawid ka sa pasilyo, kailangan mong pagtuunan ang anim na kamerang umiikot.

In crossing the aisle, you have to pay attention to the six cameras rolling.

— While performing the act of


Sa pagkabigla, napindot ko ang off. Kaya pasensya na.

In surprise, I got the off pressed. Sorry then.

— As a result of


Okey Engineer de la Verced, naiintindihan ko na nagawa natin ito na may pagkaignorante/sa kaignorantehan/sa kawalang malay/na walang pagkamalaymalay. Kung hindi sana gamit ang isang magandang computer program noon, iyon ang pinagamit ko sa iyo para naiwasan mo ang pagkakamali. Ako ang may kasalanan. Hayan tuloy, ang mga mali sa layout/krokis/pagkakalatag dito sa 87 metro kuwadradong lote ko ay malawak/kalat.

Okay Engineer de la Verced, I understand we did it in ignorance. If only an excellent computer program was not in use then, I had you use it so you could have avoided error. I am at fault. Now look; the errors in the layout onto this 87 square feet lot of mine are obviously in expanse.

— Having as a condition or state


In expanse is similar to the adjective expansive, meaning, malawak. In expanse — kalat/malawak; expansive — kalat/malawak. Observe in expanse equated into Filipino adjective form.


Tingnan mo, nahulog ang mga butil sa lupa na isang bunton/na naging bunton/para maging bunton/na nabuong bunton/at nabuong bunton/tambak/kimpal.

Look, the grains fall to the ground in a heap.

— So as to acquire the shape or form of


Mas maganda na dinudrowing mo ito gamit ang maraming kulay.

It’s better that you draw it in many colors.

— Using


Ano ba ang narinig ko? Sa narra? Ginawa mo ito sa narra? Oh, ang galing mo!

What did I hear? In narra? You built it in narra?! Oh, that’s superb of you!

— Made of





Ihalo ang itlog sa gatas.

Mix an egg in with the milk.

— So as to mingle


Ang mga plano niya’y napaayon ng sa kaniya.

His plans fell in with hers.

Fall—to occur at a certain time, to come by chance, to have a certain or proper position or place.

— So as to agree


Napasilakbo ng kaniyang galit ang aking kaibigan nang ituloy mong magpukol ng insulto sa kaniyang ina.

My friend was drawn into a frenzy when you proceeded to hurl insult on her mother.

— Acquiring the substance, form or condition of


Nag-usap sila ng malawig hanggang gabi.

They talked far into the night.

— Toward the middle of (a period of time)




Ang bahay ko ay sa banda roon mula sa pangunahing lansangan.

My house is off the main road.

— At a distance from


Inabutan/Nahuli/Nasumpungan naming hindi nakabantay/wala sa atensiyon/hindi nakapokus ang mga bantay-pintuan kaya madali sa amin ang pag-raid sa pagawaan ng mga pekeng gamot.

We caught the doormen off guard so it was easy for us to raid the factory of fake medicines.

Wala ako sa trabaho nang tumawag ka sa opisina.

I’m off work when you called up the office.

— Not engaged in (a usual occupation) or attending to (a usual concern)


When taken as a set, off guard can be both adverb and adjective depending on the context.


Hindi muna ako sa/Ayaw ko muna ng matatamis na pagkain.

I’m off sweet foods now.

— (Popular) Abstaining from


Halata na wala/malayo sa punto ang debatista.

It’s obvious that the debater was off the point.

Sa pagkakalagay, konting kalog lang ay malalaglag mula sa mesa ang baso.

The way it is placed, just a little shake and the glass will fall off the table.

— So as to be separated from in some way


Paanong ang anak natin natin ay ayaw na/hindi na ginaganahan sa kiddie shows?

How come our daughter is off kiddie shows already?

— No longer pleasurably excited by


Mukhang wala siya sa dati niyang istilo ng laro.

He looks like he is off his previous game style.

— Not up to a usual standard etc. in


Ang daan ay palayo sa pangunahing kalsada.

The path leads off the main road.

— In a direction diverging from





Hindi na puwede itong gatas na ito.

This milk is off.

— Become unfit for consumption


Ang cellular phone at ang battery nito ay magkahiwalay.

The cellular phone and its battery are off.

Tanggal ang connector patungo sa heater.

The connector to the heater is off.

— Not on, attached, united


Ang sagot niya ay mali ng limang punto.

His answer is five points off.

— In error


Malayo lang naman ang mga kabayo.

The horses are off.

— Just away


Kaunti ang suskrisyon sa linggong ito.

Subscriptions are off this week.

— Less, fewer


Ipinanawagan na ang sagupaan sa pagitan ng Philfoot at Amestrike ay kanselado/hindi tuloy.

It was announced that the match between Philfoot and Amestrike is off.

— Cancelled


Hindi gumagana/tumatakbo ang dinamo ng iyong laruang kotse.

The dynamo of your toy car is off.

— Not functioning


Sabado bukas. Bakit hindi tayo mag-hiking. Libre ako kapag Sabado.

It’s Saturday tomorrow. Why don’t we go on a hiking? I’m off on Saturdays.

— Free of the obligations of one’s usual activity


Ang layong tsansa na makontak si Ginoong Beckero sa ganitong kalagayan.

It’s an off chance to be able to contact Mr. Beckero at this situation.

— Remote


Ang malayong parte ng lansangan ay mas ligtas.

The off side of the road is safer.

— Far, further away


Wala itong araw nating ngayon!

What an off day we have today!

— Not up to standard


Wala is a peculiar popular Filipino idiom that bears a lot of meanings as in above. We don’t have to delve deep into it. Naiintindihan natin ito.


Maganda na ba ang kalagayan mo matapos ka pumunta at kumita sa ibayong dagat?

Are you already well off after going and earning abroad?

— Circumstanced


Ang asinta mo ay napakamali.

Your aim was badly off.

— Wrong





Kapag iidlip na ako, tumigil na kayo sa paglalaro dito sa kwarto.

As soon as I doze off, stop playing here in the room.

Tulog na si Papa sa kama. Tumahimik tayo.

Papa is off on bed. Let’s keep quiet.

— Into a state of unconsciousness


Ang ilog ay 10 milya kalayo/kahaba.

The lake is 10 miles off.

You notice here and in some related templates that the preposition/adverb does not have counterpart verbatim in the Filipino specimen. In some cases, there is no need to. The sense is understood in the context.

— At a distance in time or space


Papaunti na ang pagbibinhi ng mga isdang nakadepende sa bakawan.

The fish that are mangrove-dependent are breeding off.

Papaubos na (sa pagkamatay) ang populasyon ng mga ibon.

The birds are dying off.

— So as to be smaller, fewer etc.


Lumiko/Kumabig ka paalis/Lumihis ka na patungo/papasok sa daanan.

Turn off into the lane.

— So as to deviate from a course




Hoy, kasama ka sa Managerial Board ng kumpanya. Prinomote ka ayon sa pagkapaalam sa akin pero hindi mo pa alam.

Hey, you’re on the Managerial Board of the company. You are promoted as far as I have been informed but you do not know yet.

Nasa Team Aces ka! Ang galing mo. Ibig sabihin niyan ay may pag-asa kang maging champion. Binabati kita!

You’re on the Team Aces! You’re superb. That means you are hopeful to be the champion. Congratulations!

You belong to the Team Aces! You’re superb. That means you are hopeful to be the champion. Congratulations!

— To indicate membership


Ang tatay ko ay wala dito/nasa malayo sa isang biyaheng negosyo/may kinalaman sa negosyo.

My father is away on a business trip.

— Engaged in


(Nasa apoy)/May apoy/Naapuyan/Inaapoy ang buntot ng eroplano. Tingnan ninyo!

The tail of the plane is on fire. Look!

— In a condition or state of


Hmmm, lasing ka sa whiskey. Pinapayuhan kita na tumigil na sa pag-iinom. Ang kalusugan mo ay nagpapakita na ng panghihina.

Hmmm, you are drunk on whiskey. I advise you to give up drinking. Your health is showing sign of enervation.

— Due to the use of


Pupunta kami diyan sa bus/sakay ng bus/gamit ang bus. Hintayin mo kami.

We will go there on bus. Wait for us.

— By, with or through the means of


Kumain ka ako ang taya./Kumain ka, gastos/sagot ko.

Have a meal on me.

— (Popular) At the expense of


Si Ginoong Damiano ay gumuguwardya sa inyo sa kaluwagan/na may kaluwagan dahil tiwala siya na hindi na ninyo lalabagin ang mga tuntunin sa kulungan. Isang taon pa ang ipaghihintay at palalayain na kayo sa kulungang ito.

Mr. Damiano is guarding you on the loose because he is confident that you will not break prison rules. One year more is to be awaited and you will be released from this prison camp.

Kinuha niya ang sanggol sa daya/sa kubli/sa tago/sa patago/ng pakubli/ng patago/sa pasimple/ng pasimple.

He took the baby on the sly.

— Expressing manner


The phrases on the sly and on the loose derived from the dictionary, when taken as units respectively, may actually apply as adverbs.


Ladrilyo sa ladrilyo./(Ladrilyo dagdag sa ladrilyo.)

Brick on brick.

— Added to


Muntik na sila ng alon.

The wave was nearly on them.

— About to overwhelm





Magmadali ka lang (ng tuluy-tuloy).

You should hurry on.

— Expressing forward movement or progress in space


Nag-usap sila hanggang malalim na ang gabi.

They talked on late into the night.

— Expressing forward movement or progress in time



Nahihirapan siyang isuot ang guwantes.

He finds it hard to put the gloves on.

Huwag mong ibalot ang manipis na damit dahil mainit ang palayok.

Do not put the thin cloth on because the pot is hot.

Ilapat/Ipatong/Isaklob mo ang saklob/panaklob/panakip.

Put the lid on.

— In a situation of covering or contacting


Ano ba ang suot niya/damit niya?

What did she have on?

What was her clothes?

— By way of clothing


Sige ang kasasalita ng loro.

The parrot talks on.

Kumikisap-kisap ang side light ng motorbike mo.

The side light of your motorbike blinks on.

Sa puntong ito, hindi ipinapayo na paganahin ang telepono.

At this stage, it is not advised to put the telephone on.

— In function or activity


Mayroon ba tayong kung ano diyan ngayong gabi?

Have we anything on tonight?

— As planned activity


Magtatanghal siya sa ikalawang akto.

She’s on in the second act.

— Performing

Sa paglaro ninyo nitong paper dance game, kailangang matiyak ninyo na kapag huminto ang tugtog ay mailagay ninyo ang bawat isa sa inyo sa malaking papel.

As you play this paper dance game, you have to make sure that when the music stops both of you should set yourselves onto the broad paper.

— To a position on or upon


Sundan natin ang takas sa bakas/landas na iyan na likha ng kaniyang mga paa.

Let’s follow the fugitive onto that lane made by his feet.

— On the trail or track of



Hindi na malamang na ang digmaan ay sumiklab sa pagitan ng mga Hamikano at mga Sacoriano.

It’s no longer likely for a war between Hamicans and Sacorians to break out.

— Into violent or sudden activity


Ngayon tanggalin mo ang ikatlong pangungusap.

Now cross the third sentence out.

— Expressing disappearance, elimination or omission


The template above denotes that the eliminating act is done by means of crossing. See the first edition, page 93 for the instructions how you can make tranlations for tanggalin avoiding the overused or overworked remove. The examples there are brush off, peel off, clip out, sweep away etc. In the discussion therein, you can combine verb plus a preposition to make word variations for remove without yourself getting or sounding cloying (nakakaumay) with the single-word-mode verb such as “remove”.


Ang ulo ng pagong ay sumusulpot na.

The head of the turtle is starting to come out.

Ilabas mo ang pin.

Have/Put the pin out.

— Into sight


Kupas na ang kamisa ko. (naluma na dahil sa pagsuot)

My shirt is worn out.

Pagod ka na ba?

Are you tired out?

— Expressing finality


Dapat mapatay na ang mga ilaw sa ikasiyam ng gabi.

Lights should be put out at 9 in the evening.

Lights should be killed at 9 in the evening.

— So as to be no longer functioning, burning etc.


Ang “How do you say it in English?, Series” ay pinapalaganap na.

“How do you say it in English?, Series” is now out.

— In circulation


Prangkahin mo siya ngayon mismo./Diretsahin mo siya.

Tell him right out.

Kumanta si Merilin sa harap ng 20,000 kadami/katao na manonood ng walang kiyeme.

Merilin sang out before a 20,000 strong audience.

Openly, without reticence


Determinado kami na magtamo ng malaking kita mula sa aming mga ani.

We are out to earn big profit out of our produces.

— Having a determined purpose


Ang hula ko ay mali ng 200 na punto.

My guess was out by 200 points.

— In error


Ipamahagi/Ipamigay mo ang pera.

Hand out the money.

— Expressing distribution


Ang mga bulaklak nito ay umuusbong tuwing Mayo.

Its flowers come out every May.

— Into or in bloom, leaf etc.


Naghiwa-hiwalay sila./Nag-iwanan sila.

They fell out. ☼ (fall—to happen)

— Expressing discord


Wala na ang mahabang istilo ng buhok./Hindi na uso ang mahabang istilo ng buhok./Laos na ang mahabang istilo ng buhok.

Long hairstyle has gone out.

— Into or in disuse


Ngayon, pipiliin namin ang finalists.

Now, we will pick out the finalists.

— Expressing selection



Sabihin mo sa akin kung mas nais mo na mag-usap at mag-chat tayo sa Skype.

Tell me if you prefer that we talk and chat over Skype.

— By means of


Tingin ko gusto niyang mag-obserba ng ilang/sa loob ng ilang araw.

I think he wants to observe over several days.

— During


Nakatira siya sa kabila ng/sa kabilang bundok.

He lives over the hill.

— On the other side


Magmaneho ka sa bagong ruta/sa kahabaan ng bagong ruta.

Drive over the new route.

— Along


Lumipad ito patawid/palipat ng field.

It flew over the field.

— Across or above and to the other side of


Umidlip siya malapit sa apoy.

He dozed over the fire.

— Near


Over in the above sentence does not mean sa ibabaw ng.


Magandang pag-usapan ang negosyo habang umiinom tayo ng kape.

It’s good to discuss business over a glass of coffee.

— While occupied with


Nagbiyahe siya sa buong Luzon.

He travelled over Luzon.

— Throughout, in every part of


Bakit pinili mo ang holen kaysa bola?

Why did you pick out the marble over the ball?

— In preference to


Nagkaroon sila ng mainit na pagtatalo sa disenyo/na may kinalaman sa disenyo.

They had a heated argument over the design.

— About, concerned, in regard to


Manatili ka/Dito/Diyan ka lang dapat hanggang sa/pati sa/sabay na sa kaarawan ni Tom.

You must stay over Tom’s birthday.

— Up to and including


Bakit hindi mo himukin ang grupo mo na magbiyahe sa bawat sulok ng buong Taiti Island?

Why don’t you convince your group to travel over the whole Taiti Island?

— hroughout, in every part of





Ihagis mo sa akin.

Throw it over to me.

— Across


Tupiin mo

Fold it over.

— So as to turn the upper surface forward and down


Umalis siya papunta doon sa ibang partido./Nawala siya palipat sa kabilang partido./Pumakabilang partido siya./Nandoon na siya sa ibang/kabilang partido.

He has gone over to the other party.

— From one side to the other


Hampasin mo ang silya na mapatumba./Patumbahin mo ang silya./Pataubin mo ang silya.

Knock a chair over.

Kapag ako ang magalit kaya kitang patimbuwangin diyan.

If I get mad I can make you fall over, there.

— Expressing movement away from the perpendicular


Kuskusin mo ng brush ang bintanang salamin lahat-lahat/ng buo/sa buong parte.

Brush the glass window over.

— So as to cover or change the whole surface


Sigurado ako na ang kabuuan ay sobra ng dalawampu.

I am quite sure that the total was twenty pesos over.

— In excess


May natitira pa bang sopas?

Is there any soup over?

— (British) Remaining, left


Kapag pinindot ang buton/pindutan ng tatlong beses ay malamang magpatigil ng paggana ng gadyet na tangan mo.

Pressing the button three times over might stop the operation of the gadget you are holding up.

— In repetition


Lumayo/Nagpakalayo siya sa Bulacan para kalimutan ang kaniyang kabiguan.

He is over in Bulacan to forget his failure.

Si Papa at Mama ay nagliliwaliw doon sa Palawan.

Papa and Mama are having a jaunt over in Palawan.

— Across a space or distance


Pumarito/Pumunta ka dito bukas sapagkat bakante ang oras ko.

Come over tomorrow because my time will be vacant then.

— To one’s or someone’s house


Ihinto mo muna ang trabaho.

Hold the work over.

Stop the work first.

— Until a later time


Basahin mo ang aklat na “How do you say it in English?” simula umpisa hanggang dulo./Basahin mo ang aklat na “How do you say it in English?” ng buo.

Read the book “How do you say it in English?” over.

Read the book “How do you say it in English?” from cover to cover.

— From beginning to end


Pag-usapan ninyo ng mabuti ang kaso.

Talk the case over.

— With thorough, precise and concentrated effort or attention




Naglaban sila na tabla/na ikinatabla/sa isang tabla.

They fought to a draw.

Sa ikasusorpresa/Sa ikakagulat/Sa ikinagulat/Sa ikinasorpresa ko dumating siya na may kasamang pulis na may warrant of arrest.

To my surprise she came with a police with warrant of arrest.

— Used to indicate a result


Dumating sila sa ikakatulong sa amin/sa isang pagtulong sa amin/na tulong sa amin/bilang tulong sa amin.

They came to our aid.

— For the purpose of


Kung ito ay ipapatupad susog sa hiling ng mga mag-aaral, malamang maubusan tayo ng pondo.

If this is to be implemented to the wish of the students, we might go broke.

Ang panukala ay inihanay susog sa kapritso ng mga kaanib.

The proposal is outlined to the caprice of the members.

Ipinadisenyo ko ang entablado ayon sa iyong pagtatahas/pagdidetalye.

I had the stage designed to your specifications.

— In conformity with


Sinuri ito sa pinakamaliit na mga detalye.

It was analysed to the minutest details.

— Used to indicate a degree or extent


Ang mabubuting magkaibigan ay masayang nagpa-party. Kaunti lang sila. Si Miermar ay kumakanta sa saliw ng “Thinking out Loud” habang si Sharla ay kumakanta din sabay sa liriko ni Miermar. Ang tatlo pa, sina Miki, Sandana at Maraya ay nagsusunda-sundaluhan na nagmamartsa sa tugtog ng banda.

The good friends are happy partying. There are only a few of them. Miermar is singing to the tune of “Thinking out Loud” while Sharla sings out as well to Miermar’s lyrics. The other three, Miki, Sandana and Maraya are playing like soldiers marching to the band.

— In accompaniment with


Huwag kang magtrabaho ng higit pa kaysa dapat mo./Huwag kang magtrabaho ng higit pa kaysa dapat mong gawin.

Don’t work harder than you have to.

— Used elliptically for the infinitive


Ellipsis—the omission of a grammatically required word or phrase that can be inferred (mahihinuha, mahihiwatig, Wiktionary). In the English sentence just above, the omitted word is ‘work’. Without the ellipsis (omission) the sentence could have read thus ‘Don’t work harder than you have to work’’.


Ang puntos ay 6 kontra 4./Ang puntos ay 6 sa 4./Ang iskor ay 6 laban 4.

The score was 6 to 4.

— In comparison with


4 na quart sa isang galon.

4 quarts to a gallon.

— Constituting


Wala akong tutol sa kaniyang pagpunta dito.

I have no objection to his coming.

— Used as a sign of the verbal noun




Ang binatana ay nakaugnay/nakakabit/nakapirmi.

The window was fast to.

— Fixed or fastened


Nagkamalay siya makalipas ang 5 minuto.

He came to after 5 minutes.

— To consciousness

Ang kitang ito na ating nakolekta ay para/gagamitin/mapupunta sa gastusin sa pagtatapos.

This profit we have collected will go toward the graduation expenses.

Sa aking hangarin, gumawa na ako ng di mabilang na pagsisikap.

Toward my goal I have done countless efforts.

— For the purpose of helping, augmenting or making possible etc.


Magpapagabi ako dito kung hindi pa dumating si Papa.

I would stay here toward the night if Papa would not still come around.

Huwag kang magpahatinggabi sa paggawa sa kompyuter mo./Huwag kang gumawa sa kompyuter mo ng pahatinggabi.

Don’t work away at your computer toward midnight.

Matatapos na ako sa panonood ng pelikula nang ang baterya ng aking iphone ay nasaid.

I was toward the end of watching a movie when the battery of my iphone got drained.

— Approaching, near


Ang pinakamagandang opsyon ay ilagay ang radar paharap sa direksyon ng satellite.

The best option is to place the radar toward the direction of the satellite.

Itutok mo ang hawakan sa harap ng/sa may kamay ko.

Point the handle toward my hand.

— Facing




Kapag mag-ipon ka ng kaalaman, magiging tiwala ka sa sarili mo.

If you store up knowledge, you will be self-confident.

Magandang gawi ang mag-impok.

Saving up is a good practice.

Maglagay ka ng reserbang files/Magreserba ka ng files sa pamamagitan ng pag-back up gamit ang sd card./Maglagay ka bilang reserba ng files sa pamamagitan ng pag-back up gamit ang sd card.

Lay up files by backing up using your sd card.

— In reserve


Nasa kalagitnaang bahagi na tayo ng konsiyerto kung saan ang mga nagtatanghal at mga manonood ay lahat nag-iinit na.

We are now in the middle part of the concert where the performers and the audience are all heating up.

— Into a state of excitement


Ang puntos ay 2 bawat isa.

The score is 2 up.

— For each side


Tingnan mo nasusunog na!

Look, it’s burning up.

Gusto ko ang snake game na ito sa kompyuter lalo na kapag nasa yugto ka na kung saan pagkakakainin mo na ang mga minyons at nagsisisigaw sila.

I like this computer snake game especially when you are in the stage where you would be eating up the minions and they are screaming.

Kapag natuyo na ito uusli ang buto.

If it dries up the seed will jut out.

(In combination with verbs) Used as an intensive


Sindihan ang pipa/kuwako.

To light up one’s pipe.

Used in combination with verbs without effecting a change in meaning


Ano ba ang gagawin mo?/Ano ba ang pinagkakaabalahan mo?/Ano ba ang isinasaalang-alang mo?/Ano ban’g mayroon ka diyan?

What are you up to?

Bibiyahe ka na ba?/Handa ka na bang magbiyahe?/Makakabiyahe ka na ba?

Are you up to travel?

Susunod na.

Up next.

Into view, consideration, action etc.


Namangha ako; laging sumasabay/pumapantay ang Snake Boat Team sa pinakamagaling sa buong mundo!

I was awed; the Snake Boat Team is constantly up with the fastest in the world!

Makipantay/Makipagsabayan kayo sa pinakamahusay na koponan sa ligang ito.

Keep up with the best team in this league.

Hindi niya talo/Kapantay niya si Kerdel pagdating sa abilidad sa pagsasalita.

Kerdel is up with him in terms of speaking ability.

Ang mga mainggitin ay hindi nagpapatalo sa kanilang mga kapitbahay.

Envious people keep up with their neighbors.

Envious people do not allow themselves to be defeated by thei r neighbors.

So as to be even with in space, time, condition etc.


Magagawa kong magpatuloy sa ibabaw ng lahat.

I can manage to pursue upon everything.

Magsalin ka/Gumawa ka ng pagsasalin sa pamamaraang inilatag ng librong ito.

Do a translation upon the method set by this book.

— Up and on


Pinawalang bisa ang kontrata sa pagkamatay mismo niya./Pinawalang bisa ang kontrata sa mismong pagkamatay niya.

The contract was rendered void upon his death.

— At a prescribed point in time (Wiktionary)


Naglayag ang mga tripulante sa dagat.

The crew set sail upon the sea.

Bumalanse siya sa isang paa.

She balanced upon one foot.

— Being directly supported by another (Wiktionary)